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Hands-on Activity: Package those Foods!
Contributed by: Engineering K-Ph.D. Program, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University

This is a picture of soup containers that are microwaveable.
These soup containers are engineered to be used in the microwave.

Summary

This activity provides students with the opportunity to create a food package for a specific food. The students have three components to focus on in the design of their food package. The package will have to keep the food clean, protect or aid in the physical and chemical changes that can take place in the food, and identify the food appealingly.

Engineering Connection

Engineering analysis or partial design

There is a whole industry devoted to packaging engineering and this industry is expanding as more and more products are created. Packaging engineers have to focus on all the components, which the students will focus on in this exercise which include research, design, production, marketing, and analysis.

Contents

  1. Pre-Req Knowledge
  2. Learning Objectives
  3. Materials
  4. Introduction/Motivation
  5. Vocabulary
  6. Procedure
  7. Attachments
  8. Assessment
  9. Extensions
  10. Activity Scaling
  11. References

Grade Level: 7 (6-8) Group Size: 3
Time Required: 50 minutes
Activity Dependency :Food Packaging
Expendable Cost Per Group
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Related Curriculum :

Educational Standards :    

  •   International Technology and Engineering Educators Association: Technology
  •   Next Generation Science Standards: Science
  •   North Carolina: Science
Does this curriculum meet my state's standards?       

Pre-Req Knowledge (Return to Contents)

Prior to this activity, students should have a basic understanding of the following:

  • Physical properties of matter: mass, volume, melting point, boiling point, and texture.
  • Chemical properties of matter: combustibility, solubility, flammability.
  • Physical changes: phase change, shape change.
  • Chemical changes: oxidization, evolution of gas.

Learning Objectives (Return to Contents)

After this activity, students should be able to:

  • Identify four functions of a food package.
  • Explain how each food package design works.
  • Identify the chemical and physical changes different types of materials prevent or facilitate.
  • Explain what a food packaging engineer does.

Materials List (Return to Contents)

Each group needs:

  • The materials that the group chose for their project and brought from home.
  • The food assigned to the group.

To share with the entire class:

  • Scissors
  • Tape
  • Glue
  • Markers
  • String
  • Stapler/ staples

Introduction/Motivation (Return to Contents)

There is a specialty in engineering which focuses on the food packaging industry. Food packaging engineers have to work hard to produce packages for all types of food that are both marketable and functional in selling the food. Today, you have been contracted by the biggest food company, Food Kings, to create a package for one of their food products. However, you will only get paid if you create a package that will make Food Kings lots of money. So prepare for your first task as a food package engineer!

Vocabulary/Definitions (Return to Contents)

Boiling point: The temperature at which a substance changes from liquid to gas.
Melting point: The temperature at which a substance changes from solid to liquid.
Phase change: A transition between liquid and gas or liquid and solid.
Solubility: The ability for a substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent.

Background

The three functions of a food package, as taught in the Food Packaging lesson, are:
  1. To keep the food clean.
  2. To protect the food product from unwanted physical and chemical changes (such as oxidation and destruction from insects) and to facilitate in desired physical changes (such as heating or cooling).
  3. To identify the product and provide sales appeal.
Each group must strive to have their packages fulfill these three functions.
Students must first choose what types of materials they want to make their packages out of. They can research this through the food packaging materials worksheet as well as the Internet, based on how extensive you want the research to be. The materials must correspond to the physical and chemical changes that are involved in a group's food.
Other than choosing materials for the package, students must also choose the structural design of their package. Following are a number of structures and their characteristics and purposes:
  • Cartons – are rigid and provide support for fluid foods.
  • Boxes – are usually used as a secondary package to store foods that are sold in quantities larger than one but are individually wrapped and give structure and support.
  • Bags – are flexible so can be stored easily.
  • Cans – hold liquids and carbonation well and can be stacked well.
  • Bottles – hold liquids and carbonation well and are resealable.
  • Wrappers – are light and do not take up too much space.

Before the Activity

A day or two before the activity:
  • After going through the Food Packaging Lesson, divide the students into groups of 2 or 3.
  • Assign each group a food to create a package for and allow them to brainstorm the design and types of materials they will need, with help from the Food Packaging Materials Worksheet.
  • Give the students the Food Packaging Rubric so that they know what is expected of their package.
  • Assign the students to bring the materials that they would plan to use from home.
The day of the activity:
  • Gather materials that you are providing (glue, tape, etc). Make sure you have enough for every group of two to share.
  • Gather the foods that you assigned to the groups.

With the Students

  1. Give each student or group of students the food that was assigned to them along with the Food Packaging Rubric.
  2. Check to make sure each of the students/groups brought their own unique materials with them, and pass out the materials you are providing (tape, scissors, etc.)
  3. Give the students twenty to thirty minutes to create their packages.
  4. Once completed, ask each group to share their package with the class as a 2-3 minute presentation to Food King on why their package works.

Pre-Activity Assessment

Food Analysis - Ask the students to describe the physical properties of their food and identify the chemical and physical changes that they need to pay attention to in the creation of their food package.

Activity Embedded Assessment

Student Package Evaluations - Students use the attached Food Packaging Evaluation worksheet to evaluate their food package as well as the food packages of three other groups. Groups should each place their package on a desk with a brief description. Then, the students should all walk around individually to fill out their evaluations on different packages.

Post-Activity Assessment

Teacher Package Evaluations - You should now grade the groups' work according to the Food Packaging Rubric. The rubric provides an assessment tool for evaluating their designs.

Activity Extensions (Return to Contents)

Students could create their own food prior to this lesson to be packaged. The creation can involve design, analysis of the nutritional content of the food, discussion of the genetic modification of foods among other scientific aspects of food engineering.

Activity Scaling (Return to Contents)

  • For lower grades, less functions of a food package can be involved. They could focus more on the shape and aesthetic design of the structure than the materials used to make it.
  • For upper grades, more functions of a food package can be involved. They could engage at the fourth function, "for the package to be inexpensive, both in its materials and transportation," as stated in the background. They could also look more thoroughly into the chemical changes and properties of the food and packaging materials. In some cases, they could test their designs.

American Management Association. Packaging Division. Packaging for Retail Impact, with Specific Applications to the Dairy, Meat, Candy, and Baking Industries. New York: American Management Association, 1965.

Packaging Materials for Food - Practical Answers. Published September 25, 2006. Practical Action. The Schumacher Centre for Technology & Development. Accessed 4/26/07. Packaging Food in Glass

Contributors

Chloe Mawer

Copyright

© 2007 by Engineering K-Ph.D. Program, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University
including copyrighted works from other educational institutions and/or U.S. government agencies; all rights reserved.

Supporting Program (Return to Contents)

Engineering K-Ph.D. Program, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University

Last Modified: April 24, 2014
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