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Lesson: Ampere's Law

Contributed by: VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering, Vanderbilt University
This is an image of two loops; the interaction between two current loops is demonstrated in this lesson.
Ampere's law may be used to calculate the magnetic field around a current loop.

Summary

The lesson begins with a demonstration introducing students to the force between two current carrying loops, comparing the attraction and repulsion between the loops to that between two magnets. After formal lecture on Ampere's law, students begin to use the concepts to calculate the magnetic field around a loop. This is applied to determine the magnetic field of a toroid, imagining a toroid as a looped solenoid.

Engineering Connection

Relating science and/or math concept(s) to engineering

Ampere's law enables engineers to calculate the magnetic field around a loop which is useful in studying the magnetic field produced by the MRI magnet. In addition to calculating the magnetic field, engineers use Ampere's law to determine the correct amount of current and voltage that is necessary to create a functioning circuit board to perform the necessary tasks. Students will use ampere's law to solve the attached homework.

Contents

  1. Learning Objectives
  2. Introduction/Motivation
  3. Background
  4. Vocabulary
  5. Attachments
  6. Assessment
  7. References

Grade Level: 12 (11-12) Lessons in this Unit: 12345678910
Time Required: 50 minutes
Lesson Dependency :Solenoids
Keywords: torroids, Ampere's law, magnetic field
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Related Curriculum

subject areas Physics
curricular units MRI Safety Grand Challenge

Educational Standards :    

  •   Common Core State Standards for Mathematics: Math
  •   International Technology and Engineering Educators Association: Technology
  •   National Science Education Standards: Science
  •   Next Generation Science Standards: Science
Does this curriculum meet my state's standards?       

Learning Objectives (Return to Contents)

After this lesson, students should be able to
  1. Use Ampere's law to calculate magnetic fields in symmetric situations.
  2. Describe the magnetic field of a torroid.

Introduction/Motivation (Return to Contents)

In order to solve the MRI problem, we need to understand and measure the magnetic field given by current loops. Engineers continue to study magnetic fields, and they will work with safety engineers to see if they can design a more powerful MRI machine around 7 Tesla, opposed to the conventional 1.5 Tesla used in most imaging facilities.

Demo: Force Between Two Current Loops

Objective: The goal of this demonstration is to show the force between two current carrying loops. The attraction and repulsion between the loops closely resembles the force between magnets and can help students begin to visualize the force between current loops as related to a current within the solid or to the magnetic moment.
Materials:
  • 2 Small diameter coil
  • 2 30W or Higher 5V DC Power Supply
  • 2 Lab Stands
  • 1 thin strAluminum Foil
  • Wires with Alligator Clip Leads 4
  • Tape 1 roll
*This demo was tested with a 2 inch diameter coil of 100 turns using 20 gauge magnet wire held together with duct tape.
Two ring stands are next to each other, both with bars attached. A metal ring is hanging from each one such that the rings are parallel and at the same height.
Figure A
Before presenting the demonstration, pose the problem of two short segments of wire aligned in a parallel fashion and have the students determine the direction of the magnetic field in each segment produced by the other segment. Then have them determine the direction of the magnetic force on each segment. Then consider many of these segments forming a loop in which each segment of the loop is attracted to the corresponding segment on the other loop. Have the students determine the magnetic moment vector of each coil to conclude that loops with parallel magnetic moments will attract.
Set up the demonstration as shown in the diagram above. Connect each loop to its own power supply, but do not complete the circuit until you are ready to start the demonstration as the wires may overheat. Do not leave the circuits connected for more than a few seconds. Momentarily complete the circuit to both coils and watch them attract. Reverse the current in one of the loops to see them repel.

Lesson Background & Concepts for Teachers (Return to Contents)

Legacy Cycle Information

This lesson fits into the research and revise phase of the legacy cycle where students will be provided with additional information enabling them to revise their initial ideas for solving the challenge. The research aspect will consist of a demonstration on the force between two current loops and a formal lecture on Ampere's law and its applications.

Ampere's Law

Although the total magnetic flux through a closed surface must be zero, the sum of the magnetic field around a closed loop does not have to be zero. More specifically, if a closed loop is imagined in space, we can create a vector at each tiny segment called dl pointing in the direction of the loop with a magnitude equal to the length of the segment. Then we will look at the magnetic field at that point, and take the dot product
Formula
and think of this as the magnetic field along that segment of the loop. The integral of these dot products around the loop,
Formula
, is a mathematically precise way of considering the magnetic field around a closed loop.
A loop of wire has a battery and the current traveling counterclockwise. There is a magnetic field line pointing right and a ":dl" vector pointing down and to the right.
Figure B
As you might imagine, the magnetic field around a loop would be greater if a wire carrying current was passing through the interior of the loop. In fact, the exact value of the field around the loop is
Formula
where I is the total current passing through the loop.
This result is named Ampere's Law, after its discoverer.
Much like Gauss law, it is useful in determining the magnitude of the magnetic field in highly symmetric situations.
Example: Determine the magnetic field outside of an infinitely long straight wire.
Solution: Consider a closed circular loop of radius R around the wire centered on the axis of the wire, as shown in the diagram. You can see that the diagram is rotationally symmetric, so that the magnetic field must have a constant magnitude around the loop.
Thus,
Formula
.
Now by Ampere's law,
Formula
This result is in agreement with the Biot-Savart law. Note that this would appear to work for a finite segment of wire and give the same result, contradicting the result from the Biot-Savart law saying that
Formula
. Experimentally, the Biot-Savart law has been shown to be correct. This discrepancy can be understood by realizing that the segment of wire must be part of a larger circuit, breaking the symmetry and invalidating the use of Ampere's law, or that the current must be a non-steady flow from one conductor to another. From this, we can surmise that Ampere's law must be valid only for steady-state currents.

Toroid

This is a picture of  a donut shaped loop of wire, with smaller loops making up the big loop.
A toroid is basically a solenoid that is bent into a circle, as shown. This doughnut shaped figure has an inner radius a, an outer radius b, a current I, and a total number of turns N. To determine the magnetic field using amperes law, we will imagine a circular loop of radius r sharing a center with the toroid in the plane of the toroid.
Case 1: r < a
If r < a, then there is no current passing through the loop, so
Formula
. Since the diagram possesses rotational symmetry, the magnetic field must have equal magnitude anywhere along the loop, so B = 0 everywhere inside the inner radius.
Case 2: a < r < b
In this case, each turn passes through the loop in one direction, as shown in the cross sectional view to the right.
Formula
Formula
Case 3: r > b
In this case, for each inner turn passing current I through the loop in one direction, there is an outer turn passing current I through the loop in the other direction, so that the total current through the Amperian loop is zero, thus B = 0 everywhere outside the outer radius.

Vocabulary/Definitions (Return to Contents)

Toroid: A surface generated by the revolution of any closed plane curve or contour about an axis lying in its plane.

Homework

Ampere's Law: Homework questions are provided as an assessment tool enabling teachers to follow students' progress with the concepts Ampere's Law.

Dictionary.com. Random House Unabridged Dictionary, Random House. Accessed June 23, 2008. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/mri mri - Definitions from Dictionary.com

Contributors

Eric Appelt, Primary Author

Copyright

© 2006 by Vanderbilt University
Including copyrighted works from other educational institutions and/or U.S. government agencies; all rights reserved. The contents of this digital library curriculum were developed under a grant from the National Science Foundation RET grants no. 0338092 and 0742871. However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policies of the National Science Foundation, and you should not assume endorsement by the federal government.

Supporting Program (Return to Contents)

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering, Vanderbilt University

Last Modified: September 16, 2014
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