Curricular Unit: Engineering for the Earth

Contributed by: Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder

Quick Look

Grade Level: 4 (3-5)

Choose From: 9 lessons and 16 activities

Subject Areas: Earth and Space

Four photos: (left) urban landscape with roads and bridges, (next) man and boy arms outstretched towards a large body of water, (next) natural landscape with swampy river, foothills, ridge and cloudy sky, (last) globe of the earth on cracked dry soil, with a few green seedlings.
Our planet Earth
copyright
Copyright © 2004 Microsoft Corporation, One Microsoft Way, Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA. All rights reserved.

Summary

Young students are introduced to the complex systems of the Earth through numerous lessons on its natural resources, processes, weather, climate and landforms. Key earth science topics include rocks, soils and minerals, water and natural resources, weather patterns and climatic regions, wind, erosion, landforms, and the harvesting of fossil fuels—all presented from an engineering point-of-view. (See the Unit Overview section for a list of topics by lesson.) Through many hands-on activities, students build and test sand castles for construction strength, measure snow melt as a potential water source, use colored ice cubes and salt water to learn about ocean currents, make 3-D water catchment basins, make surface tension/surfactant-powered paper boats, build and use wind vanes, build and test model wind turbines, model and observe five types of erosion, model acid rain using chalk and kitchen supplies, build transportation systems across their own 3-D model landscapes, take core samples from a clay model of the Earth's crust, read and create graphs and charts as they learn about international oil production and consumption, act as engineers by specifying the power plants to build for communities, given scenarios with budgets, energy needs and environmental impacts. They learn the steps of the engineering design process as they hypothesize ways engineers might obtain water for communities facing water crises.
This engineering curriculum meets Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).

Engineering Connection

Students who study earth science soon become awed with the magnitude of our planet's landforms, geology, natural resources and processes. With this appreciation, engineers around the world design the tools and processes to find and extract raw materials from the Earth's crust to create the hardworking and safe roads, vehicles, structures, electronics, chemicals and electricity upon which we depend. Engineers decide placement of the highways, tracks and bridges of our transportation infrastructure, as well as the telephone cables, electricity transmission towers and power generation plants (including wind, water and solar) that enable communication and supply electricity. Some engineers investigate the soil types, erosion forces, and climatic environmental conditions. Other engineers examine landforms as they apply to mining, natural hazards and environmental protection, creating tools such as satellite imagery for mapping. Solving basic survival challenges are at the heart of what engineering is about. To provide clean water for communities, engineers must understand the water cycle and local resources as they design treatment plants and distribution systems that are continually being challenged with polluted water sources. Engineers help our growing human population adapt to all climates with the design of fabrics, shelters and weather technologies that help us predict and be protected from environmental conditions. Engineers create wind turbines and wind farms to tap this renewable energy source. The search for and production of fossil fuels is an engineering endeavor on many levels. Before drilling, engineers design tools and techniques — core sampling, seismic-reflection for underground mapping, microscopic size and porosity examination of reservoir rock — as well as specialized machines for extracting and transporting oil, and refining processes to convert crude oil into usable forms.

Unit Overview

Overview of topics by lesson: 1) the rocks, soils and minerals that form the Earth's crust, 2) the Earth's water resources and the water cycle, 3) the human household water cycle, 4) exploring the characteristics that define climatic regions [desert, tropical, alpine, coastal] and their impact on everyday lives of people, 5) understanding, measuring and harnessing wind, 6) the types of erosion and its shaping of the Earth, 7) the occurrence of major landforms [mountains, rivers, plains, valleys, canyons, plateaus] on the Earth's surface, (8) production and consumption of oil as a fossil fuel, and 9) the US electric power industry and its environmental impacts.

Educational Standards

Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards.

All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standards Network (ASN), a project of D2L (www.achievementstandards.org).

In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e.g., by state; within source by type; e.g., science or mathematics; within type by subtype, then by grade, etc.

  • Generate and compare multiple possible solutions to a problem based on how well each is likely to meet the criteria and constraints of the problem. (Grades 3 - 5 ) More Details

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    This Performance Expectation focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
    Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
    Generate and compare multiple solutions to a problem based on how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the design problem.

    Alignment agreement:

    Research on a problem should be carried out before beginning to design a solution. Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions.

    Alignment agreement:

    At whatever stage, communicating with peers about proposed solutions is an important part of the design process, and shared ideas can lead to improved designs.

    Alignment agreement:

    Engineers improve existing technologies or develop new ones to increase their benefits, to decrease known risks, and to meet societal demands.

    Alignment agreement:

  • Make observations and/or measurements to provide evidence of the effects of weathering or the rate of erosion by water, ice, wind, or vegetation. (Grade 4 ) More Details

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    This Performance Expectation focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
    Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
    Make observations and/or measurements to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence for an explanation of a phenomenon.

    Alignment agreement:

    Rainfall helps to shape the land and affects the types of living things found in a region. Water, ice, wind, living organisms, and gravity break rocks, soils, and sediments into smaller particles and move them around.

    Alignment agreement:

    Living things affect the physical characteristics of their regions.

    Alignment agreement:

    Cause and effect relationships are routinely identified, tested, and used to explain change.

    Alignment agreement:

  • Develop a model using an example to describe ways the geosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and/or atmosphere interact. (Grade 5 ) More Details

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    This Performance Expectation focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
    Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
    Develop a model using an example to describe a scientific principle.

    Alignment agreement:

    Earth's major systems are the geosphere (solid and molten rock, soil, and sediments), the hydrosphere (water and ice), the atmosphere (air), and the biosphere (living things, including humans). These systems interact in multiple ways to affect Earth's surface materials and processes. The ocean supports a variety of ecosystems and organisms, shapes landforms, and influences climate. Winds and clouds in the atmosphere interact with the landforms to determine patterns of weather.

    Alignment agreement:

    A system can be described in terms of its components and their interactions.

    Alignment agreement:

  • Obtain and combine information about ways individual communities use science ideas to protect the Earth's resources and environment. (Grade 5 ) More Details

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    This Performance Expectation focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
    Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
    Obtain and combine information from books and/or other reliable media to explain phenomena or solutions to a design problem.

    Alignment agreement:

    Human activities in agriculture, industry, and everyday life have had major effects on the land, vegetation, streams, ocean, air, and even outer space. But individuals and communities are doing things to help protect Earth's resources and environments.

    Alignment agreement:

    A system can be described in terms of its components and their interactions.

    Alignment agreement:

    Science findings are limited to questions that can be answered with empirical evidence.

    Alignment agreement:

  • Draw a scaled picture graph and a scaled bar graph to represent a data set with several categories. Solve one- and two-step "how many more" and "how many less" problems using information presented in scaled bar graphs. (Grade 3 ) More Details

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Our Big Blue Marble

Students are introduced to the fabulous planet on which they live. They learn how engineers study human interactions with the Earth and design technologies and systems to monitor, use and care for our planet's resources wisely to preserve life on Earth.

Elementary Lesson
Earth Rocks!

The purpose of this lesson is to introduce students to the basic elements of our Earth's crust: rocks, soils and minerals. They learn how we categorize rocks, soils and minerals and how they are literally the foundation for our civilization.

Elementary Lesson
Carbon Cycles

Students are introduced to the concept of energy cycles by learning about the carbon cycle. They learn how carbon atoms travel through the geological (ancient) carbon cycle and the biological/physical carbon cycle.

Middle School Lesson

Unit Schedule

The following schedule provides a suggested order of the lessons and activities. However, you may choose to only teach some of the activities – as your time and priorities permit.

Contributors

See individual lessons and activities.

Copyright

© 2004 by Regents of the University of Colorado

Supporting Program

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program, College of Engineering, University of Colorado Boulder

Acknowledgements

The contents of this digital library curriculum were developed under grants from the Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE), U.S. Department of Education and the National Science Foundation (GK-12 grant no. 0338326). However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policies of the Department of Education or National Science Foundation, and you should not assume endorsement by the federal government.

Last modified: November 28, 2018

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