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Hands-on ActivityEnergy and the Pogo Stick

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Quick Look

Time Required: 45 minutes

Expendable Cost/Group: US \$0.00

This activity requires pogo sticks.

Group Size: 4

Activity Dependency:

Subject Areas: Physical Science, Physics, Science and Technology

NGSS Performance Expectations:

 HS-PS3-1 HS-PS3-2

Summary

Students learn about the conservation of energy with the inclusion of elastic potential energy. They use pogo sticks to experience the elastic potential energy and its conversion to gravitational potential energy.
This engineering curriculum aligns to Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).

Engineering Connection

Not only do engineers need to know about elastics energy, but also how to measure it. This lab, like the previous rollercoaster activity, has students measuring data and then calculating energy from that raw data. Engineers use these concepts in designing and testing pogo sticks as well as many other objects designed to move.

Learning Objectives

After this activity, students should be able to:

• Apply their background knowledge to begin solving the challenge.
• Relate elastic potential energy with gravitational potential energy.

Educational Standards Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards. All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standards Network (ASN), a project of D2L (www.achievementstandards.org). In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e.g., by state; within source by type; e.g., science or mathematics; within type by subtype, then by grade, etc.

NGSS: Next Generation Science Standards - Science
NGSS Performance Expectation

HS-PS3-1. Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the change in energy of the other component(s) and energy flows in and out of the system are known. (Grades 9 - 12)

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This activity focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
Create a computational model or simulation of a phenomenon, designed device, process, or system.

Alignment agreement:

Energy is a quantitative property of a system that depends on the motion and interactions of matter and radiation within that system. That there is a single quantity called energy is due to the fact that a system's total energy is conserved, even as, within the system, energy is continually transferred from one object to another and between its various possible forms.

Alignment agreement:

Conservation of energy means that the total change of energy in any system is always equal to the total energy transferred into or out of the system.

Alignment agreement:

Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be transported from one place to another and transferred between systems.

Alignment agreement:

Mathematical expressions, which quantify how the stored energy in a system depends on its configuration (e.g. relative positions of charged particles, compression of a spring) and how kinetic energy depends on mass and speed, allow the concept of conservation of energy to be used to predict and describe system behavior.

Alignment agreement:

The availability of energy limits what can occur in any system.

Alignment agreement:

Models can be used to predict the behavior of a system, but these predictions have limited precision and reliability due to the assumptions and approximations inherent in models.

Alignment agreement:

Science assumes the universe is a vast single system in which basic laws are consistent.

Alignment agreement:

NGSS Performance Expectation

HS-PS3-2. Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as either motions of particles or energy stored in fields. (Grades 9 - 12)

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This activity focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
Develop and use a model based on evidence to illustrate the relationships between systems or between components of a system.

Alignment agreement:

Energy is a quantitative property of a system that depends on the motion and interactions of matter and radiation within that system. That there is a single quantity called energy is due to the fact that a system's total energy is conserved, even as, within the system, energy is continually transferred from one object to another and between its various possible forms.

Alignment agreement:

At the macroscopic scale, energy manifests itself in multiple ways, such as in motion, sound, light, and thermal energy.

Alignment agreement:

These relationships are better understood at the microscopic scale, at which all of the different manifestations of energy can be modeled as a combination of energy associated with the motion of particles and energy associated with the configuration (relative position of the particles). In some cases the relative position energy can be thought of as stored in fields (which mediate interactions between particles). This last concept includes radiation, a phenomenon in which energy stored in fields moves across space.

Alignment agreement:

Energy cannot be created or destroyed—it only moves between one place and another place, between objects and/or fields, or between systems.

Alignment agreement:

Common Core State Standards - Math
• Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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• Solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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International Technology and Engineering Educators Association - Technology
• Energy cannot be created nor destroyed; however, it can be converted from one form to another. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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• Use computers and calculators to access, retrieve, organize, process, maintain, interpret, and evaluate data and information in order to communicate. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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• Use various approaches to communicate processes and procedures for using, maintaining, and assessing technological products and systems. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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National Science Education Standards - Science
• Physical Science (Grades K - 12) More Details

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• Science and Technology (Grades K - 12) More Details

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Tennessee - Math
• Solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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• Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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Tennessee - Science
• Differentiate among the various forms of energy. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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• Investigate the Law of Conservation of Energy. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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Materials List

Each group needs:

• pogo stick
• book
• ruler
• Energy Pogo Stick Worksheet, one per student

More Curriculum Like This

High School Lesson
Elastic Potential Energy of Springs—It’s Tiggerific!

Students investigate potential energy held within springs (elastic potential energy) as part of the Research and Revise step. The lesson includes a dry lab that involves pogo sticks to solidify the concepts of spring potential energy, kinetic energy and gravitational energy, as well as conservation ...

High School Activity
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Students learn about the conservation of energy and the impact of friction as they use a roller coaster track to collect position data and then calculate velocity and energy data. After the lab, students relate the conversion of potential and kinetic energy to the conversion of energy used in a hybr...

High School Unit
Hybrid Vehicle Design Challenge

Through four lessons and four hands-on associated activities, this unit provides a way to teach the overarching concept of energy as it relates to both kinetic and potential energy. Within these topics, students are exposed to gravitational potential, spring potential, the Carnot engine, temperature...

Pre-Req Knowledge

Students must have a basic working knowledge of dry lab operations and measurements. They should also have an understanding of elastic and potential energies as well as be able to calculate spring constants.

Introduction/Motivation

In today's activity, we will apply what we have learned about the conservation of energy between elastic and gravitational potential energies to a hands-on activity. As you learn about elastic potential energy, be thinking about how you could use the transformation of energy to design your hybrid car. Be especially thinking about how you might use elastic potential energy in your car design.

Procedure

Background

This activity introduces students to the concept of conservation of energy, solely between elastic and gravitational potential energy. Refer back to the associated lesson, Elastic Potential Energy of Springs—It’s Tiggerific!, for more information on the conversion of kinetic and gravitational potential energy to elastic potential energy.

Before the Activity

Gather materials and make copies of the Energy Pogo Stick Worksheet, one per student.

With the Students

Explain the Lab Procedure:

1. Divide the class into lab groups of 4-5 students each. Have each take and record his/her own mass.
2. Record the distance from the ground to the collar of the pogo stick.
3. Calculate the spring constant by using the mass of the person on the pogo stick and the deflection of the pogo stick.
4. Have two people on each side of the person on the pogo stick bouncing him/her up and down. Have one or two people on the ground directly in front of the other group, measuring the amount of deflection of the collar of the pogo with a ruler that is taped to the spine of a book.
5. On the last bounce, the spotters on each side of the person on the pogo should release, but still guide the person vertically. The measurer(s) should measure both the distance of deflection and the height that the collar actually achieves.
6. Use these distances to calculate the amount of elastic potential energy and the amount of gravitational potential energy.

The teacher then needs to explain how to make height measurements of the pogo stick, as the bouncers are allowing the pogo stick to bounce freely. The teacher should also point out any potential hazards that may result in decreased safety and/or increased error. These include issues as not letting the person on the pogo actually jump, but to have the spotters actually bounce him/her up and down, making sure that the pogo is bounced straight up and down, and only taking the measurements on the last bounce as the pogo is allowed to bounce freely.

Assessment

Assess students by their contributions during the lab, as well as the completeness and accuracy of their lab reports.

Investigating Questions

• What was the percentage of gravitational potential energy to elastic potential energy?
• Theoretically, this percentage should have been 1. Should 1 be a minimum or a maximum value for this ratio, and why?
• What other potential sources of error are associated with this lab?

Activity Scaling

• For lower grades, provide more time for group discussions and have only the teacher be on the pogo stick.
• For upper grades, have students hypothesize possible types of energy that might be associated with a percentage of less than 1 in (refer to the first Investigating Question).

Contributors

Joel Daniel (funded by the NSF-funded Center for Compact and Efficient Fluid Power at the University of Minnesota); Megan Johnston

Supporting Program

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering, Vanderbilt University

Acknowledgements

The contents of this digital library curriculum were developed under National Science Foundation RET grant nos. 0338092 and 0742871. However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policies of the NSF, and you should not assume endorsement by the federal government.