# Hands-on ActivityWind Chimes

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### Quick Look

Time Required: 2 hours 30 minutes

(can be split into three 50-minute sessions)

Expendable Cost/Group: US \$10.00

Group Size: 4

Activity Dependency: None

Subject Areas: Science and Technology

NGSS Performance Expectations:

 HS-ETS1-2 HS-ETS1-3

### Summary

Students are challenged to design and build wind chimes using their knowledge of physics and sound waves, and under given constraints such as weight, cost and number of musical notes it must generate. They make mathematical computations to determine the pipe lengths.
This engineering curriculum aligns to Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).

### Engineering Connection

Everyday, engineers design and create products, structures and systems, working within given constraints. In this "open-ended design," the potential exists for many creative solutions!

### Learning Objectives

After this activity, students should be able to

• Explain the relationships between wave velocity, wavelength and frequency.
• Calculate the length of a pipe needed to provide a certain musical note.

### Educational Standards Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards. All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standards Network (ASN), a project of D2L (www.achievementstandards.org). In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e.g., by state; within source by type; e.g., science or mathematics; within type by subtype, then by grade, etc.

###### NGSS: Next Generation Science Standards - Science
NGSS Performance Expectation

HS-ETS1-2. Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering. (Grades 9 - 12)

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This activity focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
Design a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations.

Alignment agreement:

Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (trade-offs) may be needed.

Alignment agreement:

NGSS Performance Expectation

HS-ETS1-3. Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, and aesthetics, as well as possible social, cultural, and environmental impacts. (Grades 9 - 12)

Do you agree with this alignment?

Click to view other curriculum aligned to this Performance Expectation
This activity focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem, based on scientific knowledge, student-generated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations.

Alignment agreement:

When evaluating solutions it is important to take into account a range of constraints including cost, safety, reliability and aesthetics and to consider social, cultural and environmental impacts.

Alignment agreement:

New technologies can have deep impacts on society and the environment, including some that were not anticipated. Analysis of costs and benefits is a critical aspect of decisions about technology.

Alignment agreement:

###### Common Core State Standards - Math
• Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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• Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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###### International Technology and Engineering Educators Association - Technology
• Students will develop an understanding of engineering design. (Grades K - 12) More Details

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• Students will develop an understanding of the attributes of design. (Grades K - 12) More Details

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• Students will develop an understanding of the role of troubleshooting, research and development, invention and innovation, and experimentation in problem solving. (Grades K - 12) More Details

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• Students will develop abilities to apply the design process. (Grades K - 12) More Details

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• A prototype is a working model used to test a design concept by making actual observations and necessary adjustments. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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• Evaluate the design solution using conceptual, physical, and mathematical models at various intervals of the design process in order to check for proper design and to note areas where improvements are needed. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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• Cite examples of the criteria and constraints of a product or system and how they affect the final design. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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• Illustrate principles, elements, and factors of design. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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• Determine the best approach by evaluating the purpose of the design. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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• Apply a broad range of design skills to their design process. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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• Optimize a design by addressing desired qualities within criteria and constraints. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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• Develop a plan that incorporates knowledge from science, mathematics, and other disciplines to design or improve a technological product or system. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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###### Massachusetts - Math
• Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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• Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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###### Massachusetts - Science
• Break a complex real-world problem into smaller, more manageable problems that each can be solved using scientific and engineering principles. (Grades 9 - 10) More Details

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• Evaluate a solution to a complex real-world problem based on prioritized criteria and trade-offs that account for a range of constraints, including cost, safety, reliability, aesthetics, and maintenance, as well as social, cultural, and environmental impacts. (Grades 9 - 10) More Details

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• Describe the measurable properties of waves (velocity, frequency, wavelength, amplitude, period) and explain the relationships among them. Recognize examples of simple harmonic motion. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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• Identify and explain the steps of the engineering design process: identify the problem, research the problem, develop possible solutions, select the best possible solution(s), construct prototypes and/or models, test and evaluate, communicate the solutions, and redesign. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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### Materials List

• fan
• computers with internet connectivity (for research)
• drill press or drill and sturdy clamp to clamp pipes
• drill bits for each type of material students bring in (such as metal, wood, plastic)
• pipe cutter
• utility knives
• scissors
• (optional) scales
• tape
• stapler and staples

After researching the parts of a wind chime, bring in all materials necessary to build it. Try to find scrap material before purchasing anything.

### More Curriculum Like This

High School Activity
To Heat or Not to Heat?

Students are introduced to various types of energy with a focus on thermal energy and types of heat transfer as they are challenged to design a better travel thermos that is cost efficient, aesthetically pleasing and meets the design objective of keeping liquids hot.

### Pre-Req Knowledge

An understanding of waves and the corresponding equations for solving wave problems. A basic understanding of the steps of the engineering design process.

### Introduction/Motivation

You are just beginning your first job as an entry-level engineer at Wind Chimes, Inc. Your first task is to design a new and creative wind chime that meets the following criteria:

• It must be made using hollow piping.
• It must play at least four different notes that sound pleasing together.
• It must be aesthetically pleasing.
• Material cost must be under \$10.
• It cannot weigh more than 1.5 kg.
• It must make sound when suspended 1 meter away from a fan set at low.
• All research, documentation, and mathematical calculations must be provided to your supervisor (teacher).

### Procedure

Before the Activity

• Gather all materials.
• Make copies of the Student Handout, which includes procedures.
• Show students the fan being used so they can feel the wind produced by it on low at a distance of 1 meter.
• Bring in a wind chime if you have one to demonstrate.
• Suggestion: Have students conduct most of the research as a homework / out-of-class assignment.

With the Students

1. Divide the class into teams of four students each.
2. As necessary, review the steps of the engineering design process, which students will be following for this activity.
3. Distribute the Student Handout and materials.
4. Research the problem: a. What are the parts of a wind chime? b. How does the length and width of the pipe effect the sound? c. List at least 3 different sources and include website address or book title.
5. Imagine possible solutions: a. List possible materials b. Method of suspending pipes? c. Location for drilling pipes d. Make all required calculations for designing an effective wind chime.
6. Plan by Select a solution: Explain why you chose this solution and address all criteria listed in the introduction.
7. Create a prototype: Record all dimensions including pipe lengths and location of hole to suspend the pipes while constructing the prototype.
8. Test and evaluate the prototype: Does the wind chime operate continuously, giving out the expected notes under the test wind? a. What is the quality of the sound? b. Does the sound quality need to be modified?
9. Improve: Redesign as Needed: List any changes you made to the prototype and note all changes in calculations for the new model.

### Vocabulary/Definitions

crest: Highest point on a wave.

frequency: The number of wave oscillations that occur in a unit of time.

longitudinal waves: Waves with vibrations parallel to the direction of the wave motion.

transverse waves : Waves with vibrations perpendicular to the direction of the wave motion.

trough: lowest point on a wave.

wave velocity: The time it takes for one point on a wave to travel a certain distance.

wavelength: The distance between two successive points on a wave (ex. crest to crest, trough to trough).

### Assessment

Use the Evaluation Rubric to grade student design projects on their functionality, aesthetic, calculations and drawings.

### Safety Issues

Supervise students when drilling and cutting to ensure they follow safety procedures.