Hands-on Activity: Be “Cool” with Popsicle Engineering

Contributed by: Multidisciplinary Research Experiences for Teachers of Elementary Grades, Herbert Wertheim College of Engineering, University of Florida

Quick Look

Grade Level: K (K-2)

Time Required: 4 hours

(or eight 30-minute sessions)

Expendable Cost/Group: US $5.00

Group Size: 5

Activity Dependency: None

Subject Areas: Measurement, Number and Operations, Physical Science, Problem Solving

Fifteen kindergartner students sit on colorful mat eating red popsicles.
Students enjoy their engineered popsicles!
copyright
Copyright © 2018 Amy Bliss, MRET Program, College of Engineering, University of Florida

Summary

Beginning kindergarteners are introduced to science and engineering concepts through questions such as “What is a Scientist?” and “What is an Engineer?”, and go on to compare and contrast the two. They are introduced to five steps of the engineering design process and explore these steps using the “I do, we do, you do” set of guided instruction. At the end of the project, students produce a set of purple popsicles that they design using various materials and by following a set of criteria.
This engineering curriculum meets Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).

Engineering Connection

Students follow five steps of the engineering design process (ask, imagine, plan, create, improve) modified for young learners in order to make a popsicle production line that the class can enjoy. Engineers use this process every day in their work environment to solve problems and create products and solutions to make the world a better and more efficient place. Students are introduced to what engineers do in their daily lives through several books on engineering and become familiar with this line of work.

Learning Objectives

After this activity, students should be able to: 

  • Describe what a scientist does and what an engineer does and compare and contrast the two.
  • Describe and apply the five steps of the engineering process to investigate a problem and create a solution.

Educational Standards

Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards.

All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standards Network (ASN), a project of D2L (www.achievementstandards.org).

In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e.g., by state; within source by type; e.g., science or mathematics; within type by subtype, then by grade, etc.

NGSS Performance Expectation

Ask questions, make observations, and gather information about a situation people want to change to define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool. (Grades K - 2 ) More Details

Do you agree with this PE alignment?

This Performance Expectation focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
Ask questions based on observations to find more information about the natural and/or designed world(s).

Alignment agreement:

Define a simple problem that can be solved through the development of a new or improved object or tool.

Alignment agreement:

A situation that people want to change or create can be approached as a problem to be solved through engineering.

Alignment agreement:

Asking questions, making observations, and gathering information are helpful in thinking about problems.

Alignment agreement:

Before beginning to design a solution, it is important to clearly understand the problem.

Alignment agreement:

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NGSS Performance Expectation

Develop a simple sketch, drawing, or physical model to illustrate how the shape of an object helps it function as needed to solve a given problem. (Grades K - 2 ) More Details

Do you agree with this PE alignment?

This Performance Expectation focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
Develop a simple model based on evidence to represent a proposed object or tool.

Alignment agreement:

Designs can be conveyed through sketches, drawings, or physical models. These representations are useful in communicating ideas for a problem's solutions to other people.

Alignment agreement:

The shape and stability of structures of natural and designed objects are related to their function(s).

Alignment agreement:

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  • Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has "more of"/"less of" the attribute, and describe the difference. (Grade K ) More Details

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  • Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects). (Grade K ) More Details

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  • Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality. (Grade K ) More Details

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  • Count to answer "how many?" questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1—20, count out that many objects. (Grade K ) More Details

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  • All people use tools and techniques to help them do things. (Grades K - 2 ) More Details

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  • Tools are simple objects that help humans complete tasks. (Grades K - 2 ) More Details

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  • People plan in order to get things done. (Grades K - 2 ) More Details

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  • Everyone can design solutions to a problem. (Grades K - 2 ) More Details

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  • Design is a creative process. (Grades K - 2 ) More Details

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  • The engineering design process includes identifying a problem, looking for ideas, developing solutions, and sharing solutions with others. (Grades K - 2 ) More Details

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  • Expressing ideas to others verbally and through sketches and models is an important part of the design process. (Grades K - 2 ) More Details

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  • Asking questions and making observations helps a person to figure out how things work. (Grades K - 2 ) More Details

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  • Build or construct an object using the design process. (Grades K - 2 ) More Details

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  • Investigate how things are made and how they can be improved. (Grades K - 2 ) More Details

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  • Manufactured products are designed. (Grades K - 2 ) More Details

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  • Students will develop an understanding of the characteristics and scope of technology. (Grades K - 12 ) More Details

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  • Students will develop an understanding of the attributes of design. (Grades K - 12 ) More Details

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  • Students will develop an understanding of engineering design. (Grades K - 12 ) More Details

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  • Students will develop an understanding of the role of troubleshooting, research and development, invention and innovation, and experimentation in problem solving. (Grades K - 12 ) More Details

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  • Students will develop abilities to apply the design process. (Grades K - 12 ) More Details

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  • Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to narrate a single event or several loosely linked events, tell about the events in the order in which they occurred, and provide a reaction to what happened. (Grade K ) More Details

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  • Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has "more of"/"less of" the attribute, and describe the difference. (Grade K ) More Details

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  • Read and write numerals from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0–20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects). (Grade K ) More Details

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    Do you agree with this alignment?

  • Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality.
    1. When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with one and only one object.
    2. Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.
    3. Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger.
    (Grade K ) More Details

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  • Count to answer "how many?" questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1–20, count out that many objects. (Grade K ) More Details

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  • Keep records as appropriate -- such as pictorial records -- of investigations conducted. (Grade K ) More Details

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  • Collaborate with a partner to collect information. (Grade K ) More Details

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Suggest an alignment not listed above

Materials List

Each group needs:

  • package of red Kool-Aid
  • granulated sugar, ~475 ml (1 cup)
  • blue food coloring
  • paper cups, 90 ml (3 oz.), one per child
  • Popsicle sticks, one per child
  • plastic pitcher or large beaker
  • plastic measuring spoons (tablespoons)
  • wooden or plastic mixing spoon with a long handle
  • water, ~475 ml (1 cup)
  • magnifying glass
  • large bag of uncooked rice

To share with the entire class:

  • primary microscope (more if available)
  • tray or cookie sheet to hold popsicles while they are in the freezer
  • paper towels or sponges for clean up

Each student needs:

Teacher needs:

  • chart paper
  • marker
  • access to YouTube
  • Ada Twist, Scientist book by Andrea Beaty (also on YouTube)
  • I Use Science Tools book by Keli L. Hicks (or another book on this topic)
  • Goodnight Lab:  A Scientific Parody book by Chris Ferrie (optional)
  • Rosie Revere, Engineer book by Andrea Beaty (also on YouTube)
  • Have Fun, Molly Lou Melon book by Theresa Henning (also on YouTube)
  • several Jell-O packages (if your class decides to make Jell-O on Day 5; if not, substitute the next few ingredients and materials for whatever you decide to make for a snack)
  • mixing bowl
  • microwave, stove, or hot plate (access to hot water)
  • small cups or bowls for Jell-O
  • spoons for Jell-O
  • camera for documentation (optional)
  • refrigerator and freezer

Worksheets and Attachments

Visit [www.teachengineering.org/activities/view/uof-2367-popsicle-engineering-design-process] to print or download.

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Pre-Req Knowledge

The students need very little pre-requisite knowledge. You will be introducing them to science and engineering roles, as well as the vocabulary and tools that they use.  If you are limited on time you may start the activity on Day 6, but you will need to make sure that the students have some experience with scientific tools (measuring materials, hand lenses, microscopes) and have been introduced to the idea of the scientific and engineering processes.

Introduction/Motivation

Today, we’re going to start learning about scientists and engineers. What so you think of when I say “scientist?” (Let students discuss a few ideas; record them on the board.) What do you think of when I say “engineer?” (Let students discuss a few ideas; record them on the board.) What kinds of things do scientists and engineers do? (Let students share ideas. They may mention that scientists work in a lab, use a microscope, wear a lab coat, do experiments, use the scientific method, etc. They may mention that engineers design and build things like buildings or robots.)

Now that we’ve discussed what kind of things scientists and engineers do, let’s talk a little bit about the roles they play in our world. The best way to think about a scientist is to think of someone who wants to know more about our world. They may perform experiments in the lab or in the outdoor world in order to gain knowledge. On the other hand, engineers are people who invent, design, build, and test lots of different machines or structures. Engineers may help design computers, test robots, or even build rockets that take us into space!

(Show the video Solve Problems: Be an Engineer! on YouTube.)

Over the next few days, we’ll learn all about scientists, the scientific method, engineers, and the engineering design process. Then, you’ll become Popsicle engineers and solve a problem, just like real engineers!

Procedure

Background

The purpose of this activity is to introduce students to the nature of science and engineering. If students feel capable and excited at an early age, they will take this enthusiasm with them as they move through their educational development. If they learn the first five steps of the engineering design process, they can apply them to all aspects of learning and become comfortable with the growth mindset and that it is acceptable to fail and improve repeatedly to get the desired results. 

This activity is designed for students beginning kindergarten. Establishing classroom routines and procedures and introducing students to the five senses will get them ready for this unit. Because kindergarteners are so new to the classroom environment, they may have to be guided in the right direction when they are doing these activities. If you were to try this towards the end of the year or in a higher grade level you would differentiate by providing less scaffolding.

You can do the experiment part of this activity (starting on Day 6) without all of the background lessons if your students have prior knowledge of what a scientist and engineer are, as well as how to use scientific tools. If you are starting on Day 6 you will not need many of the materials on the list. Use your judgment on how many of these lessons you want to do with your students.  If you do all of them, you might need more than one 30-minute session for each day.

Day 1

Before the Activity

With the Students – Science Skills (What is a Scientist?)

  1. Access prior knowledge on what a scientist is with a circle chart or KWL chart (what I already know, what I want to know, and what I ultimately learn) on chart paper.
  2. Watch “The Scientific Method Song” on YouTube and list and describe the steps in the song with the students.
  3. Read Ada Twist, Scientist and revise the circle chart or add to KWL chart what they learned from the song and the book.
  4. Have students make the “I am a Scientist” craft using the “I am a Scientist” Template 1, “I am a Scientist” Template 2, “I am a Scientist” Template 3, “I am a Scientist” Template 4, and “I am a Scientist” Template 5.  They can cut out the lab coat, goggles, etc., from the templates and make an image of themselves as scientists.

Poster of a man in white lab coat and blue pants.
A student-created “I am a Scientist” figure made from templates.
copyright
Copyright © 2018 Amy Bliss, MRET Program, College of Engineering, University of Florida

Day 2

Before the Activity

With the Students - Science Tools

  1. Read I Use Science Tools and Goodnight Lab: A Scientific Parody.
  2. Introduce the tools that will be used in the classroom by name; discuss and demonstrate how you would use them (stress that scientists are very careful and precise with their tools and make sure they are clean when they are finished with them).
  3. Introduce lab notebooks and discuss how they will be used (model using a camera or draw a representation of a page on the whiteboard or chalkboard – these notebooks can be used for the remainder of the year for all science and engineering activities).
  4. As you circulate make sure the students are using the materials safely and with care.
    • At Station 1, challenge the students to predict how many spoons of rice it will take to fill each container. (Example question: do you think this beaker will need more or less to fill it?  Why?). 
    • At Station 2, the students can also experiment with food coloring. Encourage them to try adding one drop at a time to a cup of water see what happens.
    • At Station 3, encourage students to try more than one of the games.
    • At Station 4, call students to the microscope one or two at a time to look at rice, water, colored water, etc.
  1. Give students a few minutes at the end of the station exploration to draw or write what they observed in their lab notebooks.

Day 3

Before the Activity

  • Have the book Rosie Revere, Engineer on hand.
  • Make an anchor chart with five steps of the engineering design process to refer to, or use the document camera with the template STEM Data Recording Sheet and record the group’s responses projected on a white board (“How did Rosie use the five step engineering design process to create her projects?)
  • Pull up “Jessi Has a Problem” on YouTube (if possible). Note: the video starts at the 1:17 mark.
  • Make copies of the Venn Diagram, one per student.

With the Students - Solving Problems

  1. Tap into background knowledge through discussion with students (refer to the What is an Engineer? chart that was previously made).
  2. Watch “Jessi Has a Problem” on YouTube.
  3. Read Rosie Revere, Engineer.
  4. Introduce students to the anchor chart of the design process (ask, imagine, plan, create, improve).  Distribute Venn Diagram handouts for students to fill out during the discussion. Discuss with students how:
    • Engineers follow a five-step protocol.  A protocol means they follow the same steps every time. 
    • Scientists also follow protocols when doing experiments.
    • Engineers and scientists are often unsuccessful the first few times they conduct an investigation. They keep trying until they find a solution.
    • Scientists and engineers wear PPE (personal protective equipment – goggles, lab coats, shoes, etc.).

Day 4

Before the Activity

  • Have the anchor chart available to refer to.
  • Have the book Have Fun, Molly Lou Melon on hand.
  • Make a large chart that looks like the STEM Data Recording Sheet or project an actual reflection onto the white board.

With the Students - Design Process

  1. Revisit the anchor chart of the design process.
  2. Read Have Fun, Molly Lou Melon and discuss how she behaves like an engineer.
  3. As a class discuss some of her ideas and creations and walk through the steps together aloud.
  4. Introduce a problem to the students—we are hungry and want to make Jell-O but we aren’t sure what to do. We have a packet of Jell-O but no directions to go with it.
  5. Complete the first steps of the STEM Data Recording Sheet as a class (ask, plan imagine).Write down exactly what the students say to do (even if it is incorrect).  Tell the students you will gather the materials and you will make the Jell-O the next day. 

Day 5

Before the Activity

  • Gather materials to make Jell-O (several Jell-O packages, mixing bowls, how water, small cups or bowls, spoons).
  • Prepare to display the large STEM Data Recording Sheet from Day 4.
  • Put students in mixed ability groups of 4 or 5 to work together.

With the Students - Create the Class Design

  1. Revisit the anchor chart of the design process.
  2. Remind students of the problem they used the design process to solve the previous day: We have a packet of Jell-O but no directions to go with it. Show students the STEM Data Recording Sheet they completed as a class.
  3. Distribute materials to each group. Tell students that they should make Jell-O following the steps of the design process they came up with the day before. Monitor students as they make the Jell-O.
  4. Label groups’ Jell-O cups and place in a refrigerator. Tell students that they will get to see their Jell-O cups the next day.

Day 6

Before the Activity

  • Put students in mixed ability groups of 4 or 5 to work together.
  • Have the STEM Data Recording Sheet available for each of the students.
  • Gather tools and materials to make popsicles (magnifying glasses, microscopes (if available), cups, spoons, measuring cups, sugar, Kool-Aid, blue food coloring, the amount of water required to make the Kool-Aid, popsicle sticks, paper towels, cookie sheets or trays).

With the Students - Plan Your Own Design

  1. Refer to the anchor chart. Briefly show students a few successful Jell-O cups from Day 4. If  the class managed to be successful in making enough Jell-O cups for everyone, you may let students snack on them after today’s activity.
  2. Tell the students they are going to follow the five steps to work on solving an engineering challenge. Introduce the challenge, “Today you are going to become Popsicle engineers!  A local Popsicle business has an order for a set of purple popsicles; but there’s a problem—they only have the powder to make red popsicles. The owners have come to you to figure out how to make the popsicles purple with the ingredients they have available. They also need you to figure out how many popsicles to make and how to make them all the same size. Today you will begin working in teams to fill the Popsicle order. These are the materials that are available (show the students the materials). You will work in your teams for as long as it takes to successfully complete the Popsicle challenge. At the end of each work session you will have a chance to share your findings with your classmates and learn from each other.”
  3. Highlight some components of their engineering challenge:
    • Today we have a request to make a batch of popsicles for the whole class.
    • The problem is that we only have powder to make red popsicles and we need to make purple.
    • Another challenge is that we need to figure out how many popsicles we need to make so that everybody gets one and they need to be the same size. 
  1. Have the students fill out the first step of the engineering design on their STEM Data Recording Sheet.
    • Ask: What is the problem? (You own a Popsicle shop and someone wants to order a class set of purple popsicles. The problem is that you only have red powder and blue food coloring to make popsicles. You also need to figure out how many popsicles you need and have a plan to make sure they are a uniform size.).
    • Imagine: What the popsicles will look like? What will they taste like?  Have students draw on their planning/data sheet.
    • Plan: What do you need to get the right color? What ingredients and tools will you need to make the popsicles? What will you have to do to make them frozen? How can you make sure they are all the same volume?

Day 7

Before the Activity

  • Have anchor chart available and STEM Data Recording Sheet from the day before.
  • Gather and put out the same materials from the day before.

With the Students - Create Your Own Design

  1. Refer to anchor chart as a review.
  2. Review the STEM Data Recording Sheet from the day before.
  3. Have the students count the number of children in the group so they know how many popsicles they will need to make.
  4. Introduce the ingredients and materials before putting them on the tables (also give them magnifying glasses and microscopes so they can look at the powders and liquids).
  5. Tell the students they have everything they will need to make the right number of purple popsicles.
  6. Let the students work with their lab group to attempt to make the popsicles (walk around and make small suggestions if they are completely on the wrong path or off task).
  7. Have students record what they did on their STEM Data Recording Sheets.
  8. Take the popsicles and put them in the freezer. Make sure to label each tray so you know which group made them.

Four students and one adult volunteer around a small table stirring a red liquid in a metal bowl.
Students working together with a volunteer looking on to complete the Popsicle challenge!
copyright
Copyright © 2018 Amy Bliss, MRET Program, College of Engineering, University of Florida

Day 8

Before the Activity

  • Check the popsicles so you know which groups successfully completed the challenge.
  • Gather measuring and science tools for stations (the tools previously used in the challenge).
  • Have anchor chart and STEM Data Recording Sheets available.
  • Review the five steps of the engineering process and focus on the last step.

With the Students - Improve Upon Your Design

  1. Review the five steps of the engineering process and focus on the last step.
  2. Take the popsicles out of the freezer and have students record their observations on their STEM Data Recording Sheets.
  3. Have the lab groups conference to revise their plan and try again (circulate to guide the conversations).
  4. As groups finish, and if they are successful, they can present their process to the class. Instruct the other groups to listen and use that information to apply to their own design. If you have a few lab coats the presentation time would be a good time for them to wear them. Each group can stand up in front of the class and tell the class about their five-step process.
  5. Students that successfully complete the challenge will have time to revisit the lab stations while the other students work on their revised plans (lab stations should be the same as those set up on Day 2 and include the measuring tools with different media, microscopes, magnifying glasses, and recording observations in their lab notebooks).
  6. When all groups have completed the challenge compare notes as a whole group. Decide on a protocol and make a batch for the whole class (you can have the students tell you what steps to do).

Vocabulary/Definitions

engineer: A person who follows the five-step design process (ask, imagine, plan, create, improve) to identify and solve problems.

engineering design process: The five-step plan that engineers use to identify and solve problems.

protocol: A formal or official record of scientific experimental observations.

scientific tools: Tools that scientists use to complete their experiments.

scientist: A person who seeks to acquire knowledge about the natural world.

Assessment

Pre-Activity Assessment

KWL (or Anchor) Chart: Lead the class in creating the first two steps in a whole group KWL chart (what we know and what we want to know) to assess prior knowledge (ask questions such as, “What is a scientist?”  “What does a scientist do?”  What does a scientist look like?”)

Activity Embedded Assessment

KWL (or Anchor) Chart: Lead the class in a whole group KWL chart (what we learned), also teacher observation of level of involvement during hands on activities.

Post-Activity Assessment

Rubric: Ask each child the questions on the Assessment Rubric about their level of involvement in the activities to allow for self-reflection (guide their responses as necessary).

Investigating Questions

  • Ask (what is the problem that needs to be solved?)
  • Imagine (What could I do to solve the problem?)
  • Plan (What do I need to do and gather to solve the problem?)
  • Create (How can I make something with my materials to solve the problem?)
  • Improve (How can I make my plan better?)

Safety Issues

  • If the class makes Jell-O, the teacher should be the one to handle the hot water out of the microwave or off of the stove or hot plate.
  • Check with parents or guardians about allergies or dietary restrictions before allowing them to “test” their products.

Activity Extensions

Have students make new designs for different colors, volumes, and designs of popsicles.

Have students design other “cooking” projects.

Use the five-step process in many different areas of the school day (think aloud the process with the class while designing a project).

Activity Scaling

  • For lower grades, provide more scaffolding and guidance.
  • For higher grades, allow the students more freedom with variables (different colored Kool-Aid or food coloring, volume, design, materials available).

Contributors

Amy Bliss

Copyright

© 2019 by Regents of the University of Colorado; original © 2018 University of Florida

Supporting Program

Multidisciplinary Research Experiences for Teachers of Elementary Grades, Herbert Wertheim College of Engineering, University of Florida

Acknowledgements

This curriculum was based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under RET grant no. EEC 1711543— Engineering for Biology: Multidisciplinary Research Experiences for Teachers in Elementary Grades (MRET) through the College of Engineering at the University of Florida. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Last modified: June 18, 2019

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