# Lesson:Faucet Flow Rate

### Quick Look

Time Required: 45 minutes

Lesson Dependency: None

Subject Areas: Life Science

### Summary

Students conduct experiments to determine the flow rate of faucets by timing how long it takes to fill gallon jugs. They do this for three different faucet flow levels (quarter blast, half blast, full blast), averaging three trials for each level. They convert their results from gallons per second (gps) to cubic feet per second (cfs).
This engineering curriculum aligns to Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).

### Engineering Connection

Civil engineers design the systems that bring water from natural sources, such as rivers, lakes, glaciers, watersheds or aquifers, to the towns and cities where that water is needed. Civil engineers also manage natural systems for purposes of flood control and drought mitigation. Students who complete this activity gain a greater understanding for what civil engineers who design water systems do and the skills they use in their careers.

### Learning Objectives

After completing this activity, students should be able to:

1. Define flow rate.
2. Conduct an experiment to determine the flow rate of a faucet.
3. Calculate flow rates from experimental data.
4. Convert flow rates from gps to cfs units.

### Educational Standards Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards. All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standards Network (ASN), a project of D2L (www.achievementstandards.org). In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e.g., by state; within source by type; e.g., science or mathematics; within type by subtype, then by grade, etc.

###### NGSS: Next Generation Science Standards - Science
• Use mathematical representations to describe and/or support scientific conclusions and design solutions. (Grades 6 - 8) More Details

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• Analyze and interpret data to determine similarities and differences in findings. (Grades 6 - 8) More Details

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###### Common Core State Standards - Math
• Find a percent of a quantity as a rate per 100 (e.g., 30% of a quantity means 30/100 times the quantity); solve problems involving finding the whole, given a part and the percent. (Grade 6) More Details

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• Use ratio reasoning to convert measurement units; manipulate and transform units appropriately when multiplying or dividing quantities. (Grade 6) More Details

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• Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship, e.g., by testing for equivalent ratios in a table or graphing on a coordinate plane and observing whether the graph is a straight line through the origin. (Grade 7) More Details

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• Use data from a random sample to draw inferences about a population with an unknown characteristic of interest. Generate multiple samples (or simulated samples) of the same size to gauge the variation in estimates or predictions. (Grade 7) More Details

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###### International Technology and Engineering Educators Association - Technology
• Use data collected to analyze and interpret trends in order to identify the positive and negative effects of a technology. (Grades 6 - 8) More Details

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• Interpret and evaluate the accuracy of the information obtained and determine if it is useful. (Grades 6 - 8) More Details

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###### State Standards
• Find a percent of a quantity as a rate per 100. (Grade 6) More Details

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• Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multidigit decimals using standard algorithms for each operation. (Grade 6) More Details

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• Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving the four operations with rational numbers. (Grade 7) More Details

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• Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. (Grade 8) More Details

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• Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. (Grade 8) More Details

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• Use tools to gather, view, analyze, and report results for scientific investigations about the relationships among mass, weight, volume, and density (Grade 6) More Details

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• Identify evidence that suggests there is a fundamental building block of matter (Grade 6) More Details

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### More Curriculum Like This

Flow Rates of Faucets and Rivers

Students are given background information to prepare them to conduct two associated activities in which they conduct hands-on experiments with a common faucet and then work with real-world USGS streamflow data to gain a better understanding of flow rate and how it pertains to engineering and applied...

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River Flow Rate

Students build on their understanding and feel for flow rates, as gained from the associated Faucet Flow Rate activity, to estimate the flow rate of a local river. They use the U.S. Geological Survey website to determine the actual flow rate data for their river, and compare their estimates to the a...

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### Introduction/Motivation

To take full advantage of today's activity, we need to able to relate a flow rate from a river to something they are familiar with. By experimentally determining the flow rate of a faucet, we will develop a frame of reference for gauging the magnitude of flow rates in rivers.

### Assessment

At activity end, convene the class to share and compare results. Point out how these are the sorts of calculations engineers make when analyzing natural resources for the amount of water flow they could provide to a community. Use this forum to make sure students have gained familiarity with the units and the flow rates at the different faucet flow levels, which prepares them for the next step (conducting the associated River Flow Rate activity), to relate this sense of scale to the movement of water in a local river.

### Lesson Extension Activities

Have students determine flow rate of faucets, shower heads and garden hoses they use in their homes, yards and school.

Have students compare data across different teams. This can be accomplished in a number of ways. If the room faucets are similar, then the various group data should fall on the same line on a graph. You could provide the data from all groups to every team, and have them prepare graphs of all the data. If the faucets are different, then students could hypothesize why the flow rate vs. time plots are different, for example, cross sectional area of faucet is bigger/smaller, water pressure is different from faucet to faucet, etc.

### Contributors

Bobby Rinehart; Karen Johnson; Mike Mooney

### Supporting Program

Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Colorado School of Mines

### Acknowledgements

This curriculum was created with support from the National Science Foundation. However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policies of the National Science Foundation, and you should not assume endorsement by the federal government.