# Subject Areas

### Algebra

Algebra is the branch of mathematics that treats the relations and properties of quantity by means of letter and other symbols. It is applicable to those relations that are true of every kind of magnitude.

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### Biology

Biology is the science of life, the branch of the natural sciences that studies living organisms.

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### Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific study of matter and its interaction with other matter and with energy. It is the branch of natural science that deals with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions.

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### Computer Science

Computer science is the study of computational systems and their use in representing important problems in science and society. Major topics include computational science, software systems, network systems, theory of computation, machine learning, and human-computer interaction.

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### Data Analysis and Probability

Education in a free society must prepare citizens to make informed choices in all areas of their lives. They must be able to grasp the information being presented, analyze it, and make reasoned decisions. To accomplish these goals, students learn to collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer questions that can be addressed with data; use appropriate statistical methods and predictions that are based on data; develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data; and apply basic concepts of probability. Probability is the study of chance and the possibility that an event will occur.

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### Earth and Space

In earth and space science, students study the origin, structure, and physical phenomena of the earth and the universe. Earth and space science studies include concepts in geology, meteorology, oceanography, and astronomy.

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### Geometry

Geometry is the branch of mathematics that investigates the relations, properties, and measurement of solids, surfaces, lines, and angles. It is the science of the relations of space.

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### Life Science

The life sciences investigate the diversity, complexity, and interconnectedness of life on Earth. Students are naturally drawn to examine living things, and as they progress through the grade levels, they become capable of understanding the theories and models that scientists use to explain observations of nature.

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### Measurement

Measurement is best learned through direct applications or as part of other mathematical topics. A measurable attribute of an object is a characteristic that is most readily quantified and compared. Many attributes, such as length, perimeter, area, volume, and angle measure, come from the geometric realm. Other attributes are physical, such as temperature and mass. Still other attributes, such as density, are not readily measurable by direct means.

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### Number and Operations

The study of numbers and operations is the cornerstone of the mathematics curriculum. Learning what numbers mean, how they may be represented, relationships among them, and computations with them is central to developing number sense.

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### Physical Science

Physical science is the science of matter and energy and their interactions, and examines the physical world around us. Using the methods of the physical sciences, students learn about the composition, structure, properties and reactions of matter, and the relationships between matter and energy. Students are best able to build understanding of the physical sciences through hands-on exploration of the physical world.

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### Physics

Physics is the scientific study of the basic principles of the universe, including matter, energy, motion and force, and their interactions. Major topics include classical mechanics, thermodynamics, light and optics, electromagnetism and relativity.

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### Problem Solving

Problem solving encompasses the thought processes involved in solving problems. It is both a means of developing students' knowledge of mathematics and a critical outcome of a good mathematics education. A mathematical problem, as distinct from an exercise, requires the solver to search for a method for solving the problem rather than following a set procedure. Mathematical problem solving, therefore, requires an understanding of relevant concepts, procedures, and strategies. To become good problem solvers, students need many opportunities to formulate questions, model problem situations in a variety of ways, generalize mathematical relationships, and solve problems in both mathematical and everyday contexts.

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### Reasoning and Proof

From the early grades, students develop reasoning skills by making and testing mathematical conjectures, drawing logical conclusions, and justifying their thinking in developmentally appropriate ways. As they advance through the grades, students' arguments become more sophisticated and they are able to construct formal proofs. By doing so, students learn what mathematical reasoning entails.

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### Science and Technology

The goal of engineering is to solve practical problems through the development or use of technologies. Technology/engineering works in conjunction with science to expand our capacity to understand the world.

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