Curricular Unit: Urban Stormwater Management

Contributed by: Water Awareness Research and Education (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET), University of South Florida, Tampa

Quick Look

Grade Level: 7 (6-8)

Choose From: 2 lessons and 5 activities

Subject Areas: Science and Technology

Two photographs: A sunken circular area in a park with a center drain planted with grasses and flowers, surrounded by mulch and four benches. The legs and feet of three people walking on a gray sidewalk that looks like it is made of much aggregate, as spaces can be seen between the small stones.
Examples of technologies to manage urban stormwater include this rain garden designed and constructed by students in Florida, and this pervious pavement in South Dakota.
copyright
Copyright © (left) Ryan Locicero, WARE raingardens.us (author); (right) U.S. EPA http://www2.epa.gov/region8/green-infrastructure#4

Summary

Engineers design and implement many creative techniques for managing stormwater at its sources in order to improve and restore the hydrology and water quality of developed sites to pre-development conditions. Through the two lessons in this unit, students are introduced to green infrastructure (GI) and low-impact development (LID) technologies, including green roofs and vegetative walls, bioretention or rain gardens, bioswales, planter boxes, permeable pavement, urban tree canopies, rainwater harvesting, downspout disconnection, green streets and alleys, and green parking. Student teams take on the role of stormwater engineers through five associated activities. They first model the water cycle, and then measure transpiration rates and compare native plant species. They investigate the differences in infiltration rates and storage capacities between several types of planting media before designing their own media mixes to meet design criteria. Then they design and test their own pervious pavement mix combinations. In the culminating activity, teams bring together all the concepts as well as many of the materials from the previous activities in order to create and install personal rain gardens. The unit prepares the students and teachers to take on the design and installation of bigger rain garden projects to manage stormwater at their school campuses, homes and communities.
This engineering curriculum meets Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).

Engineering Connection

Examples of human-made infrastructure that rely on engineers fully understanding the hydrologic cycle include stormwater ponds, earthen dams, levees, treatment facility influent and effluent; sheet, overland and channelized flows; stream flow and base flow. Practical applications of hydrology are found in such tasks as the design and operation of hydraulic structures, drinking water supply, wastewater treatment and disposal, recreational water use, and fish and wildlife protection.

Engineers are involved in analyzing the problems involved in these urban infrastructure tasks and then designing solutions and providing guidance for planning and management of water resources. Civil and geotechnical engineers must have a comprehensive understanding of in situ soil mechanics, groundwater flow and influent runoff in order to properly design systems to manage stormwater. In order to design technologies that address water quality and treatment of stormwater, groundwater and remediation projects, environmental engineers must understand the movement of water as it percolates through different soil layers.

Rain gardens are a promising green infrastructure (as opposed to "gray infrastructure") and low-impact development technology for managing stormwater at its sources using natural means to restore the water quality of developed sites to near pre-development conditions. Rain gardens are typically constructed with high-permeability media, consisting of soil, sand and organic matter, designed to maximize infiltration, improve water quality and promote vegetative growth. (Roy-Poirier, 2010)

Today's engineering graduates and global citizens are charged with the responsibility of creating sustainable solutions to 21st century "grand engineering challenges." (NAE, 2008) From an environmental perspective, rain gardens recharge groundwater, provide natural stormwater management, reduce energy usage, improve water quality, reduce heat-island effects, and increase habitat. Social aspects to consider are the beautification and increase in recreational opportunities, improved health through cleaner air and water, and improved psychological well-being. Economic concerns that are met range from reducing the future costs of stormwater management to increasing property values and tourism.

Unit Overview

Students are introduced to the sub-units of the hydrologic cycle and urban stormwater management through two lessons: Natural and Urban "Stormwater" Water Cycles and Green Infrastructure and Low-Impact Development Technologies. The lessons maybe be conducted in any order, however students should complete both lessons' PowerPoint® presentations and associated tasks (handout, design scenario sketching) prior to conducting each lesson's associated activities. One activity directly follows the water cycle lesson and three activities follow the GI/LID technologies lesson. The final rain garden activity builds on all the activities—both concepts and materials—as teams construct personal rain gardens that can be incorporated into school grounds or home yards.

In terms of cost, many materials are introduced and then reused in later activities (both expendable and non-expendable items), with most items being pulled together for the culminating rain garden activity.

A three-column table with rows numbered 1 through 7. Text contents by row: Lesson 1: Natural and Urban "Stormwater" Water Cycles (90 minutes); Activity 1: Making Natural and Urban "Stormwater" Water Cycle Models (90 minutes); Lesson 2: Green Infrastructure and Low-Impact Development Technologies (90 minutes); Activity 2: Just Breathe Green: Measuring Transpiration Rates (45 minutes); Activity 3: Does Media Matter? Infiltration Rates and Storage Capacities (90 minutes); Activity 4: Making "Magic" Sidewalks of Pervious Pavement (90 minutes); Activity 5: A Guide to Rain Garden Construction (135 minutes).
Table 1. The suggested order to conduct the unit's lessons and activities.

Watch a video about the National Science Foundation-sponsored program that generated this unit (7:17 minutes), USF-Green Space Based Learning at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8UWeJ8ky43w. Starting at about minute 4, the personal rain garden unit project is discussed, and then images are provided of students involved in the surveying, project management, site assessment, project sizing, excavation, underdrain sample port installation, media layer and planter selection and installation, and final elevation grading to install a bioretention rain garden on a Florida school campus.

Educational Standards

Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards.

All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standards Network (ASN), a project of D2L (www.achievementstandards.org).

In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e.g., by state; within source by type; e.g., science or mathematics; within type by subtype, then by grade, etc.

NGSS Performance Expectation

MS-ESS3-3. Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment. (Grades 6 - 8)

Do you agree with this alignment?

This unit focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
Apply scientific principles to design an object, tool, process or system.

Alignment agreement:

Human activities have significantly altered the biosphere, sometimes damaging or destroying natural habitats and causing the extinction of other species. But changes to Earth's environments can have different impacts (negative and positive) for different living things.

Alignment agreement:

Relationships can be classified as causal or correlational, and correlation does not necessarily imply causation.

Alignment agreement:

The uses of technologies and any limitations on their use are driven by individual or societal needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions. Thus technology use varies from region to region and over time.

Alignment agreement:

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NGSS Performance Expectation

MS-ESS2-4. Develop a model to describe the cycling of water through Earth's systems driven by energy from the sun and the force of gravity. (Grades 6 - 8)

Do you agree with this alignment?

This unit focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
Develop a model to describe unobservable mechanisms.

Alignment agreement:

Water continually cycles among land, ocean, and atmosphere via transpiration, evaporation, condensation and crystallization, and precipitation, as well as downhill flows on land.

Alignment agreement:

Global movements of water and its changes in form are propelled by sunlight and gravity.

Alignment agreement:

Within a natural or designed system, the transfer of energy drives the motion and/or cycling of matter.

Alignment agreement:

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NGSS Performance Expectation

MS-ETS1-1. Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions. (Grades 6 - 8)

Do you agree with this alignment?

This unit focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
Define a design problem that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process or system and includes multiple criteria and constraints, including scientific knowledge that may limit possible solutions.

Alignment agreement:

The more precisely a design task's criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that is likely to limit possible solutions.

Alignment agreement:

All human activity draws on natural resources and has both short and long-term consequences, positive as well as negative, for the health of people and the natural environment.

Alignment agreement:

The uses of technologies and any limitations on their use are driven by individual or societal needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions.

Alignment agreement:

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NGSS Performance Expectation

MS-ETS1-3. Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success. (Grades 6 - 8)

Do you agree with this alignment?

This unit focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
Analyze and interpret data to determine similarities and differences in findings.

Alignment agreement:

There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet the criteria and constraints of a problem.

Alignment agreement:

Sometimes parts of different solutions can be combined to create a solution that is better than any of its predecessors.

Alignment agreement:

Although one design may not perform the best across all tests, identifying the characteristics of the design that performed the best in each test can provide useful information for the redesign process—that is, some of the characteristics may be incorporated into the new design.

Alignment agreement:

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  • Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. (Grade 6) More Details

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  • Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations. (Grade 6) More Details

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  • Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities. (Grade 7) More Details

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  • Knowledge gained from other fields of study has a direct effect on the development of technological products and systems. (Grades 6 - 8) More Details

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  • Systems, which are the building blocks of technology, are embedded within larger technological, social, and environmental systems. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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  • Humans devise technologies to reduce the negative consequences of other technologies. (Grades 9 - 12) More Details

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  • Identify the impact that humans have had on Earth, such as deforestation, urbanization, desertification, erosion, air and water quality, changing the flow of water. (Grade 7) More Details

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  • Describe and investigate various limiting factors in the local ecosystem and their impact on native populations, including food, shelter, water, space, disease, parasitism, predation, and nesting sites. (Grade 7) More Details

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  • Describe and investigate the process of photosynthesis, such as the roles of light, carbon dioxide, water and chlorophyll; production of food; release of oxygen. (Grade 8) More Details

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  • Classify and compare substances on the basis of characteristic physical properties that can be demonstrated or measured; for example, density, thermal or electrical conductivity, solubility, magnetic properties, melting and boiling points, and know that these properties are independent of the amount of the sample. (Grade 8) More Details

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  • describe the water cycle, the composition and structure of the atmosphere and the impact of oceans on large-scale weather patterns (Grades 5 - 8) More Details

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Middle School Activity
Does Media Matter? Infiltration Rates and Storage Capacities

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Assessment

Each lesson and associated activity includes assessment suggestions to administer before, during and after each lesson and activity to assess students on their understanding of the individual unit components.

Other Related Information

References

Davis, A. P., Shokouhian, M., Sharma, H., and Minami, C. (2006). Water quality improvement through bioretention media: Nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Water Environment Research , 78(3), 284-293. doi: 10.2175/106143005x94376

Kadlec, R. H., and Wallace, S. D. Treatment Wetlands. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2009.

NAE. (2008). National Academy of Engineering Summit Series – Face the Challenge http://www.grandchallengesummitorg. Retrieved November 2010.

Roy-Poirier, A., Champagne, P., and Filion, Y. (2010). Review of Bioretention System Research and Design: Past, Present, and Future. Journal of Environmental Engineering-Asce , 136(9), 878-889. doi: 10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0000227

Contributors

Ryan Locicero, Maya Trotz, Krysta Porteus, Jennifer Butler, William Zeman, Brigith Soto

Copyright

© 2014 by Regents of the University of Colorado; original © 2013 University of South Florida

Supporting Program

Water Awareness Research and Education (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET), University of South Florida, Tampa

Acknowledgements

This curriculum was developed by Water Awareness Research and Education (WARE) Research Experience for Teachers (RET) at the University of South Florida, funded by National Science Foundation grant no. EEC 1200682. However, the contents do not necessarily represent the policies of the NSF, and should not be assumed an endorsement by the federal government.

Last modified: July 18, 2018

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