Quick Look
Grade Level: 8 (68)
Time Required: 45 minutes
Lesson Dependency:
Subject Areas: Data Analysis and Probability, Physical Science, Physics
Summary
Students do work by lifting a known mass over a period of time. The mass and measured distance and time is used to calculate force, work, energy and power in metric units. The students' power is then compared to horse power and the power required to light 60watt light bulbs.Engineering Connection
The basic concepts of work, force, energy and power are fundamental physics concepts utilized in many engineering calculations and design. Every engineered device that moves, lifts or pushes requires energy. Engineers must know how to calculate the power and energy needed to do the necessary work or provide the required heat. Most of the world uses metric units to quantify engineering terms. But the US is still one of the few countries that performs some of its engineering work in the old British system units. Metric units are all based on fundamental physics quantities, which makes the metric joule, newton and watt much easier to use and calculate than the British BTU (British thermal unit), horse power, pound force and slug.
Learning Objectives
After the activity, students should be able to:
 Define and contrast energy, work and power.
 Given mass, distance, and time, calculate work, force and power using appropriate units.
 Given the conversion equations, convert between horsepower and kilowatts.
 Use measurement tools to apply the concepts of work, power and energy to a real life example.
Educational Standards
Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K12 science,
technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards.
All 100,000+ K12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standards Network (ASN),
a project of D2L (www.achievementstandards.org).
In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e.g., by state; within source by type; e.g., science or mathematics;
within type by subtype, then by grade, etc.
Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K12 science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards.
All 100,000+ K12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standards Network (ASN), a project of D2L (www.achievementstandards.org).
In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e.g., by state; within source by type; e.g., science or mathematics; within type by subtype, then by grade, etc.
NGSS: Next Generation Science Standards  Science
NGSS Performance Expectation  

MSPS32. Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system. (Grades 6  8) Do you agree with this alignment? 

Click to view other curriculum aligned to this Performance Expectation  
This lesson focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:  
Science & Engineering Practices  Disciplinary Core Ideas  Crosscutting Concepts 
Develop a model to describe unobservable mechanisms. Alignment agreement:  A system of objects may also contain stored (potential) energy, depending on their relative positions. Alignment agreement: When two objects interact, each one exerts a force on the other that can cause energy to be transferred to or from the object.Alignment agreement:  Models can be used to represent systems and their interactions—such as inputs, processes and outputs—and energy and matter flows within systems. Alignment agreement: 
Common Core State Standards  Math

Fluently divide multidigit numbers using the standard algorithm.
(Grade
6)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

Solve realworld and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form x + p = q and px = q for cases in which p, q and x are all nonnegative rational numbers.
(Grade
6)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multidigit decimals using the standard algorithm for each operation.
(Grade
6)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division and of fractions to multiply and divide rational numbers.
(Grade
7)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?
International Technology and Engineering Educators Association  Technology

Energy is the capacity to do work.
(Grades
6 
8)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

Power is the rate at which energy is converted from one form to another or transferred from one place to another, or the rate at which work is done.
(Grades
6 
8)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?
State Standards
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics  Math

solve problems that arise in mathematics and in other contexts
(Grades
PreK 
12)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

recognize and apply mathematics in contexts outside of mathematics
(Grades
PreK 
12)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

use representations to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical phenomena
(Grades
PreK 
12)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

understand and use ratios and proportions to represent quantitative relationships
(Grades
6 
8)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

understand the meaning and effects of arithmetic operations with fractions, decimals, and integers
(Grades
6 
8)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

use the associative and commutative properties of addition and multiplication and the distributive property of multiplication over addition to simplify computations with integers, fractions, and decimals
(Grades
6 
8)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

relate and compare different forms of representation for a relationship
(Grades
6 
8)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

develop an initial conceptual understanding of different uses of variables
(Grades
6 
8)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

use symbolic algebra to represent situations and to solve problems, especially those that involve linear relationships
(Grades
6 
8)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

model and solve contextual problems using various representations, such as graphs, tables, and equations
(Grades
6 
8)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

understand relationships among units and convert from one unit to another within the same system
(Grades
6 
8)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

select and apply techniques and tools to accurately find length, area, volume, and angle measures to appropriate levels of precision
(Grades
6 
8)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

solve simple problems involving rates and derived measurements for such attributes as velocity and density
(Grades
6 
8)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

use observations about differences between two or more samples to make conjectures about the populations from which the samples were taken
(Grades
6 
8)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?
National Science Education Standards  Science

Use appropriate tools and techniques to gather, analyze, and interpret data. The use of tools and techniques, including mathematics, will be guided by the question asked and the investigations students design. The use of computers for the collection, summary, and display of evidence is part of this standard. Students should be able to access, gather, store, retrieve, and organize data, using hardware and software designed for these purposes.
(Grades
5 
8)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

Develop descriptions, explanations, predictions, and models using evidence. Students should base their explanation on what they observed, and as they develop cognitive skills, they should be able to differentiate explanation from descriptionproviding causes for effects and establishing relationships based on evidence and logical argument. This standard requires a subject matter knowledge base so the students can effectively conduct investigations, because developing explanations establishes connections between the content of science and the contexts within which students develop new knowledge.
(Grades
5 
8)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

Think critically and logically to make the relationships between evidence and explanations. Thinking critically about evidence includes deciding what evidence should be used and accounting for anomalous data. Specifically, students should be able to review data from a simple experiment, summarize the data, and form a logical argument about the causeandeffect relationships in the experiment. Students should begin to state some explanations in terms of the relationship between two or more variables.
(Grades
5 
8)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

Use mathematics in all aspects of scientific inquiry. Mathematics is essential to asking and answering questions about the natural world. Mathematics can be used to ask questions; to gather, organize, and present data; and to structure convincing explanations.
(Grades
5 
8)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

Mathematics is important in all aspects of scientific inquiry.
(Grades
5 
8)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

Energy is a property of many substances and is associated with heat, light, electricity, mechanical motion, sound, nuclei, and the nature of a chemical. Energy is transferred in many ways.
(Grades
5 
8)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?
New York  Math

Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multidigit decimals using the standard algorithm for each operation.
(Grade
6)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

Fluently divide multidigit numbers using the standard algorithm.
(Grade
6)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

Solve realworld and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form x + p = q and px = q for cases in which p, q and x are all nonnegative rational numbers.
(Grade
6)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division and of fractions to multiply and divide rational numbers.
(Grade
7)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?
New York  Science

Develop a model to describe that when the arrangement of objects interacting at a distance changes, different amounts of potential energy are stored in the system.
(Grades
6 
8)
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?
Worksheets and Attachments
Visit [www.teachengineering.org/lessons/view/cla_human_power_activity] to print or download.More Curriculum Like This
Demos and activities in this lesson are intended to illustrate the basic concepts of energy science—work, force, energy, power etc., and the relationships among them.
Introduction/Motivation
Work is force applied over a distance, and is measured in units of joules (J). That means that work is a measure of energy! Power, the rate at which work is done, is measured in joules per seconds. One J/s is also known as a watt. The watt is named after James Watt, who invented the first steam engine. When he was selling it, he advertised to farmers and miners that it could give more power than a horse. He said that it had 1.5 horsepower. Although the unit of horsepower is still used today, it does not accurately describe how many horses it replaces because not every horse is the same.
Not every person is the same either. How many of your own person power does it take to equal a horse? How about to light up a 60 W light bulb? Do you think you have enough power to do that?
Assessment
Have students complete the activity worksheet and discussion questions and turn in for review and grading.
Other Related Information
This activity was originally published by the Clarkson University K12 Project Based Learning Partnership Program and may be accessed at http://internal.clarkson.edu/highschool/k12/project/energysystems.html.
Copyright
© 2013 by Regents of the University of Colorado; original © 2008 Clarkson UniversityContributors
Susan Powers; Jan DeWaters; and a number of Clarkson and St. Lawrence students in the K12 Project Based Learning Partnership ProgramSupporting Program
Office of Educational Partnerships, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NYAcknowledgements
This activity was developed under National Science Foundation grant nos. DUE 0428127 and DGE 0338216. However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policies of the National Science Foundation, and you should not assume endorsement by the federal government.
Last modified: November 4, 2019
Comments