Hands-on Activity: Robot Soccer Challenge

Contributed by: GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center, College of Engineering, University of Missouri

A photograph shows a girl kicking a soccer ball into a net goal as she is pursued by three other players.
Can you program robots to play soccer?
copyright
Copyright © 2004 Microsoft Corporation, One Microsoft Way, Redmond, WA 98052-6399 USA. All rights reserved. http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/images/results.aspx?qu=soccer&ex=1#ai:MP900422624|

Summary

Students learn how two LEGO® MINDSTORMS® EV3 intelligent bricks can be programmed so that one can remotely control the other. They learn about the components and functionality in the (provided) controller and receiver programs. When its buttons are pressed, the brick assigned as the remote control device uses the controller program to send Bluetooth® messages. When the taskbot/brick assigned as the receiver receives certain Bluetooth messages, it moves, as specified by the receiver program. Students examine how the programs and devices work in tandem, gaining skills as they play "robot soccer." As the concluding activity in this unit, this activity provides a deeper dimension of understanding programming logic compared to previous activities in this unit and introduces the relatively new and growing concept of wireless communication. A PowerPoint® presentation, pre/post quizzes and a worksheet are provided.
This engineering curriculum meets Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).

Engineering Connection

Programming two robots to send and receive messages from each other and act accordingly is a fairly involved task. Engineers designed Bluetooth Smart technology—a wireless communication system that supports this type of messaging—to perform tasks such as sending your heart rate stats to your smartphone. Before Bluetooth technology, engineers developed other means of remote communication using radio waves to control remote devices, such as radio-controlled vehicles. The Mars Rover is one example of how advanced remote communication technology and robots have become. Software engineers play a key role in developing programs that enable remote communication to control the Mars Rover. Understanding how these programs works challenges students to think carefully about the logic used in a remote control program and strengthens their abilities to confront difficult tasks systematically.

Learning Objectives

After this activity, students should be able to:

  • Explain how two robots can be individually programmed to use Bluetooth technology to interact with each other.

Educational Standards

Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards.

All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standards Network (ASN), a project of D2L (www.achievementstandards.org).

In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e.g., by state; within source by type; e.g., science or mathematics; within type by subtype, then by grade, etc.

  • Define a simple design problem reflecting a need or a want that includes specified criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost. (Grades 3 - 5 ) More Details

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    This Performance Expectation focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
    Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
    Define a simple design problem that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process, or system and includes several criteria for success and constraints on materials, time, or cost.

    Alignment agreement:

    Possible solutions to a problem are limited by available materials and resources (constraints). The success of a designed solution is determined by considering the desired features of a solution (criteria). Different proposals for solutions can be compared on the basis of how well each one meets the specified criteria for success or how well each takes the constraints into account.

    Alignment agreement:

    People's needs and wants change over time, as do their demands for new and improved technologies.

    Alignment agreement:

  • Generate and compare multiple possible solutions to a problem based on how well each is likely to meet the criteria and constraints of the problem. (Grades 3 - 5 ) More Details

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    This Performance Expectation focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
    Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
    Generate and compare multiple solutions to a problem based on how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the design problem.

    Alignment agreement:

    Research on a problem should be carried out before beginning to design a solution. Testing a solution involves investigating how well it performs under a range of likely conditions.

    Alignment agreement:

    At whatever stage, communicating with peers about proposed solutions is an important part of the design process, and shared ideas can lead to improved designs.

    Alignment agreement:

    Engineers improve existing technologies or develop new ones to increase their benefits, to decrease known risks, and to meet societal demands.

    Alignment agreement:

  • Plan and carry out fair tests in which variables are controlled and failure points are considered to identify aspects of a model or prototype that can be improved. (Grades 3 - 5 ) More Details

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    This Performance Expectation focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
    Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
    Plan and conduct an investigation collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence, using fair tests in which variables are controlled and the number of trials considered.

    Alignment agreement:

    Tests are often designed to identify failure points or difficulties, which suggest the elements of the design that need to be improved.

    Alignment agreement:

    Different solutions need to be tested in order to determine which of them best solves the problem, given the criteria and the constraints.

    Alignment agreement:

  • Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions. (Grades 6 - 8 ) More Details

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    Do you agree with this alignment?

    This Performance Expectation focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
    Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
    Define a design problem that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process or system and includes multiple criteria and constraints, including scientific knowledge that may limit possible solutions.

    Alignment agreement:

    The more precisely a design task's criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that is likely to limit possible solutions.

    Alignment agreement:

    All human activity draws on natural resources and has both short and long-term consequences, positive as well as negative, for the health of people and the natural environment.

    Alignment agreement:

    The uses of technologies and any limitations on their use are driven by individual or societal needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions.

    Alignment agreement:

  • Evaluate competing design solutions using a systematic process to determine how well they meet the criteria and constraints of the problem. (Grades 6 - 8 ) More Details

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    Do you agree with this alignment?

    This Performance Expectation focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
    Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
    Evaluate competing design solutions based on jointly developed and agreed-upon design criteria.

    Alignment agreement:

    There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet the criteria and constraints of a problem.

    Alignment agreement:

  • Analyze data from tests to determine similarities and differences among several design solutions to identify the best characteristics of each that can be combined into a new solution to better meet the criteria for success. (Grades 6 - 8 ) More Details

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    This Performance Expectation focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
    Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
    Analyze and interpret data to determine similarities and differences in findings.

    Alignment agreement:

    There are systematic processes for evaluating solutions with respect to how well they meet the criteria and constraints of a problem.

    Alignment agreement:

    Sometimes parts of different solutions can be combined to create a solution that is better than any of its predecessors.

    Alignment agreement:

    Although one design may not perform the best across all tests, identifying the characteristics of the design that performed the best in each test can provide useful information for the redesign process—that is, some of the characteristics may be incorporated into the new design.

    Alignment agreement:

  • Develop a model to generate data for iterative testing and modification of a proposed object, tool, or process such that an optimal design can be achieved. (Grades 6 - 8 ) More Details

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    This Performance Expectation focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
    Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
    Develop a model to generate data to test ideas about designed systems, including those representing inputs and outputs.

    Alignment agreement:

    Models of all kinds are important for testing solutions.

    Alignment agreement:

    The iterative process of testing the most promising solutions and modifying what is proposed on the basis of the test results leads to greater refinement and ultimately to an optimal solution.

    Alignment agreement:

  • Students will develop an understanding of the characteristics and scope of technology. (Grades K - 12 ) More Details

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  • Students will develop an understanding of the relationships among technologies and the connections between technology and other fields of study. (Grades K - 12 ) More Details

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  • Students will develop an understanding of the attributes of design. (Grades K - 12 ) More Details

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  • Students will develop abilities to apply the design process. (Grades K - 12 ) More Details

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  • Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use information and communication technologies. (Grades K - 12 ) More Details

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  • Designed objects are used to do things better or more easily and to do some things that could not otherwise be done at all (Grades K - 5 ) More Details

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Suggest an alignment not listed above

Materials List

Each group needs:

Note: This activity can also be conducted with the older (and no longer sold) LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT set instead of EV3; see below for those supplies:

  • LEGO MINDSTORMS NXT Base Set
  • computer loaded with the NXT 2.1 software
  • Controller.rbt and Receiver.rbt programs, installed on the computer

To share with the entire class:

  • Robot Soccer Challenge Presentation, Microsoft® PowerPoint® file
  • computer with Internet connection and projector, to show the presentation and a short online video
  • measuring tape or ruler, to measure for miniature soccer fields
  • black electrical tape, to create miniature soccer playing field(s) on the floor
  • 2-3 small balls to use to play "robot soccer," such as 1- to 2-in diameter rubber "bouncy" balls or ping pong balls; recommended quantity: 1 ball for every 4 student groups

Worksheets and Attachments

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Pre-Req Knowledge

Complete the previous units (1-4) and the earlier lessons and activities of unit 5 prior to this activity.

Introduction/Motivation

Have you ever sent a text to a friend using a cell phone? Texting has become so commonplace that you might think it's funny that I even asked! When you text someone, you are essentially using a "program" on your cell phone that enables you to text. This program uses communications between cell phones to pass that message to your friend's cell phone. Engineers have designed this method of communication for you!

Do you think that you can communicate with a robot in this way? Is it possible for you to control a robot by using a remote electronic device? Engineers have designed a technology called "Bluetooth" to help you communicate with robots. Today, you will learn how engineers have designed Bluetooth to be programmed so that you can communicate between two EV3 robots!

Procedure

Before the Activity

  • Gather materials and make copies of the Robot Soccer Challenge Pre-Quiz, Robot Soccer Challenge Worksheet and Robot Soccer Challenge Post-Quiz, one each per student. The quizzes and their answers are also embedded in the presentation, so they can be presented to the class as a whole, if desired.
  • Assemble the LEGO MINDSTORMS EV3 taskbots by following instructions in the core set or at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dhe2jXi3Fc4. Each group needs an EV3 brick to serve as the "controller" (the remote control device) and an assembled taskbot with its EV3 brick to serve as the "receiver."
  • Find a clear space on a smooth floor where one or more small-scale soccer fields can be set up for the EV3 robots. Either prepare the fields and goals in advance of the class, or have students create them as part of the activity. Use black tape to create the field boundaries and end goals (see a diagram of a typical soccer field on slide 24). The game is just for fun, so no specific dimensions exist for field or goal size or scoring.
  • Use the Robot Soccer Challenge Presentation, a PowerPoint® file, to teach and conduct the activity. Set up a computer/projector to show the presentation to the class.
  • Arrange for enough computers so you have one for each student group. Make sure each computer has the LEGO software and the Controller.ev3 and Receiver.ev3 programs loaded. No programming is necessary for this challenge

With the Students: Robot Soccer Challenge

  1. Administer the pre-quiz (also on slide 2 with answers on slides 3-4) and discuss the answers as a class after students have filled out the sheets.
  2. Use slides 5-6 to introduce the activity challenge: To program two EV3 robots (a "controller" and a "receiver") so that one can be used to remotely control the other via a wireless Bluetooth connection. Review the challenge objectives and answer any questions. Show students the YouTube video on how to remotely control an EV3 taskbot at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tq6910e1GGM (link on slide 6 and in the Additional Multimedia Support section).
  3. Divide the class into groups of three student each, and distribute the worksheets.
  4. Go through Part 1: Understanding the Programs (slides 7-13), which outlines how the two programs work, providing details about how they are written to enable two EV3s to interact so that one remotely controls the other. Have students complete the worksheet during this time. Slides 8-9 provide a review of the concepts of electrical connections and Bluetooth with the EV3. Slide 10 provides an overview: Two EV3s are needed—one serving as the controller and the other as the receiver. In response to certain buttons being pushed, the controller sends messages via Bluetooth. The receiver gets those messages via Bluetooth, and responds by some movement, as determined by its programming. Then present the details about what the controller program needs to do (slide 11) and how the receiver program needs to respond (slide 12), which are summarized on slide 13.
  5. Present Part 2: Running the Programs! (slides 14-21), which explains how to download and run the programs. First go through the instructions for how to change the receiving EV3s' names to something unique so that they are easily recognizable and do not cause confusion when they are all using Bluetooth at the same time (slides 15-18). Then direct students to download the controller and receiver programs onto their computers; these programs are provided for the students so no programming is necessary for this challenge. The controller program (Controller.ev3) goes on the EV3 to be used as a remote control, while the receiver program (Receiver.ev3) goes on an EV3 on a taskbot that can move. Make sure that students follow the downloading instructions (slides 19-21) carefully and in the order presented.
  6. Give students some time to test out the controller/receiver programs and practice remotely controlling their taskbots.
  7. Once four groups have had practice using their remote controlled taskbots, challenge them to work together to play "robot soccer," which means trying to remotely control their robots in order to push a small ball into a goal. If not already prepared by the teacher, have students use black tape on an open floor area to create the boundaries of a miniature soccer field with goals. Remind students that the game is for fun, so no specific rules exist for field and goal size and the score of the game does not matter! As additional groups becomes ready, have them work together to play robot soccer, too.
  8. As a class, discuss the activity, giving students the opportunity to share what they learned and any observations, problems or questions. What would happen if we didn't tell the program what to do for a certain button or what to do if no buttons were pushed? What would happen if you changed the program so when the receiver receives "3," it turns the robot left instead of right? (So pushing the right arrow button causes the robot to turn left!) How do programming decisions like this affect the user experience with the "game?" What other decisions like this must software programmers think about carefully? What ideas do you have for how you might change the programming to accomplish different tasks using two EV3 bricks?
  9. Administer the post-quiz (also on slide 22 with answers on slide 23) and review the answers as a class. Slide 24 presents vocabulary words and definitions, as well as a diagram of a typical soccer field.

Vocabulary/Definitions

Bluetooth technology: A type of wireless electrical connection used for communication between two devices. Bluetooth is a standard developed by electronics manufacturers that allows any sort of electronic equipment—from computers and cell phones to keyboards and headphones—to make their own connections, without wires, cables or any direct action from a user. Bluetooth® is a registered trademark of Bluetooth SIG, Inc.

electrical connection: The link or bond that passes electricity between two or more things.

Assessment

Pre-Activity Assessment

Pre-Quiz: Before starting the activity, administer the two-question Robot Soccer Challenge Pre-Quiz by handing out paper copies (also on slide 2). Review students' answers to gauge their base knowledge of Bluetooth using wireless electrical connections with EV3 robots. The answers are provided on the Robot Soccer Challenge Pre-Quiz Answer Key (and slides 3-4).

Activity Embedded Assessment

Worksheet: As students work through the activity, have them answer the questions provided on the Robot Soccer Challenge Worksheet. Observe students to make sure they are engaged and completing their worksheets. Collect the worksheets at activity end and review students' observations and answers to gauge their depth of comprehension. The answers are provided on the Robot Soccer Challenge Worksheet Answer Key.

Robot Soccer: Expect students to be able to explain conceptually how the program works. In addition, expect them be able to correctly control the robot. Assess each group's performance in the activity using the following rubric (maximum 30 points).

  • When asked how the program broadly works, students explain that the EV3 "controller" sends messages via Bluetooth that are received and then interpreted by the EV3 "receiver" taskbot. They can also explain the numerical message that is sent based on what button is being pressed. (15 points maximum)
  • Students demonstrate that they are able to use the EV3 "controller" to deliberately move the "receiver" taskbot forward, left and right, as directed. (15 points maximum)

Post-Activity Assessment

Concluding Discussion: At activity end, lead a class discussion so students can share their observations, difficulties, questions and conclusions. Use this opportunity to gauge student comprehension.

Post-Quiz: At activity end, administer the three-question Robot Soccer Challenge Post-Quiz by handing out paper copies (also slide 22). Review students' answers to assess their individual understanding of the program logic. The answers are provided on the Robot Soccer Challenge Post-Quiz Answer Key (and slide 23).

Additional Multimedia Support

During the presentation, show students the YouTube video on how to remotely control an EV3 taskbot at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tq6910e1GGM 

EV3 robots and sensors: https://www.lego.com/en-us/mindstorms/?domainredir=mindstorms.lego.com

Instructions to assemble the LEGO EV3 5 Minute Bot at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dhe2jXi3Fc4

Contributors

Riaz Helfer, Sachin Nair, Pranit Samarth, Satish S. Nair

Copyright

© 2014 by Regents of the University of Colorado; original © 2013 Curators of the University of Missouri

Supporting Program

GK-12 Program, Computational Neurobiology Center, College of Engineering, University of Missouri

Acknowledgements

This curriculum was developed under National Science Foundation GK-12 grant no. DGE 0440524. However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policies of the National Science Foundation, and you should not assume endorsement by the federal government.

Last modified: February 8, 2019

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