### Summary

From drinking fountains at playgrounds, water systems in homes, and working bathrooms at schools to hydraulic bridges and levee systems, fluid mechanics are an essential part of daily life. Fluid mechanics, the study of how forces are applied to fluids, is outlined in this unit as a sequence of two lessons and three corresponding activities. The first lesson provides a basic introduction to Pascal's law, Archimedes' principle and Bernoulli's principle and presents fundamental definitions, equations and problems to solve with students, as well as engineering applications. The second lesson provides a basic introduction to above-ground storage tanks, their pervasive use in the Houston Ship Channel, and different types of storage tank failure in major storms and hurricanes. The unit concludes with students applying what they have learned to determine the stability of individual above-ground storage tanks given specific storm conditions so they can analyze their stability in changing storm conditions, followed by a project to design their own storage tanks to address the issues of uplift, displacement and buckling in storm conditions.*This engineering curriculum meets Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).*

### Engineering Connection

Physics and fluid mechanics are integral parts of engineering, and both are typically presented as required courses at most universities for most engineering majors. Engineers apply Pascal's law, Archimedes' principle and Bernoulli's principle to design and construct various floating vessels, submersibles, airplanes, automobiles, pipelines and transport systems, hydraulic structures and even petrochemical storage tanks. Ocean and marine engineers study the offshore environment to design oil rigs and production platforms as well as floating vessels and subsea pipeline systems needed in the oil production process. Other engineers design different types of submersibles and remotely operated vehicles used to explore deep-water environments. Still other engineers apply these scientific concepts to become specialists in hydraulics—the use of liquid power to do work—and they design heavy machinery, water distribution systems, sewage networks, storm water management systems, bridges, dams, channels, canals and levees.

### More Curriculum Like This

**Archimedes' Principle, Pascal's Law and Bernoulli's Principle**

Students are introduced to Pascal's law, Archimedes' principle and Bernoulli's principle. Fundamental definitions, equations, practice problems and engineering applications are supplied.

**Above-Ground Storage Tanks in the Houston Ship Channel**

Students are provided with an introduction to above-ground storage tanks, specifically how and why they are used in the Houston Ship Channel. Students learn how the concepts of Archimedes' principle and Pascal's law act out in the form of the uplifting and buckling seen in the damaged and destroyed ...

**Above-Ground Storage Tank Design Project**

In this culminating activity, student groups act as engineering design teams to derive equations to determine the stability of specific above-ground storage tank scenarios with given tank specifications and liquid contents. With their flotation analyses completed and the stability determined, studen...

**Fluid Power Basics**

Students learn about the fundamental concepts important to fluid power, which includes both pneumatic (gas) and hydraulic (liquid) systems.

###
Educational Standards
Each *TeachEngineering* lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science,
technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards.

All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in *TeachEngineering* are collected, maintained and packaged by the *Achievement Standards Network (ASN)*,
a project of *D2L* (www.achievementstandards.org).

In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; *e.g.*, by state; within source by type; *e.g.*, science or mathematics;
within type by subtype, then by grade, *etc*.

Each *TeachEngineering* lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science,
technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards.

All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in *TeachEngineering* are collected, maintained and packaged by the *Achievement Standards Network (ASN)*,
a project of *D2L* (www.achievementstandards.org).

In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; *e.g.*, by state; within source by type; *e.g.*, science or mathematics;
within type by subtype, then by grade, *etc*.

###### NGSS: Next Generation Science Standards - Science

- Asking questions and defining problems in grades 9–12 builds from grades K–8 experiences and progresses to formulating, refining, and evaluating empirically testable questions and design problems using models and simulations. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?
- Plan and conduct an investigation of the properties of water and its effects on Earth materials and surface processes. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?

###### Common Core State Standards - Math

- Solve linear equations and inequalities in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?

###### International Technology and Engineering Educators Association - Technology

- Technological innovation often results when ideas, knowledge, or skills are shared within a technology, among technologies, or across other fields. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?

###### Texas - Science

- express and manipulate relationships among physical variables quantitatively, including the use of graphs, charts, and equations. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?
- express and interpret relationships symbolically in accordance with accepted theories to make predictions and solve problems mathematically, including problems requiring proportional reasoning and graphical vector addition. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?
- know that scientific theories are based on natural and physical phenomena and are capable of being tested by multiple independent researchers. Unlike hypotheses, scientific theories are well-established and highly-reliable explanations, but may be subject to change as new areas of science and new technologies are developed; (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?

### Unit Overview

Overview of topics by lesson: 1) Archimedes' principle, Pascal's law, Bernoulli's principle, 2) the concepts covered in the first lesson applied to the use and failure of above-ground storage tanks in the Houston Ship Channel.

### Unit Schedule

Day 1 – Archimedes' Principle (lesson 1)

Day 2 – Pascal's Law (lesson 1)

Day 3 – Bernoulli's Principle (lesson 1)

Day 4 – Cartesian Diver activity

Day 5 – Rock and Boat activity

(optional additional activity) – A Shot Under Pressure activity (120 minutes)

Day 6 – Above-Ground Storage Tanks in the Houston Ship Channel (lesson 2)

Days 7-10 – Students use class time to work on Above-Ground Storage Tank Design Project activity

Day 11 – Student presentations

### Contributors

Emily Sappington, Mila Taylor### Copyright

© 2014 by Regents of the University of Colorado; original © 2013 University of Houston### Supporting Program

National Science Foundation GK-12 and Research Experience for Teachers (RET) Programs, University of Houston### Acknowledgements

This digital library content was developed by the University of Houston's College of Engineering, based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under GK-12 grant no. DGE 0840889. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Last modified: September 7, 2017

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