Curricular Unit: Building towards the Future

Quick Look

Grade Level: 7 (6-8)

Choose From: 2 lessons and 3 activities

Subject Areas: Geometry, Science and Technology

A black and white photo shows a tall I-beam structure with two men up high, working on the beams.
Ironworkers building a tower.
Copyright ©


Students are introduced to some basic civil engineering concepts in an exciting and interactive manner via two lessons and three activities. Bridges and skyscrapers—the two most visible structures designed by civil engineers—are discussed in depth, including the design principles behind them. To help students visualize in three dimensions, one hands-on activity presents three-dimensional coordinate systems and gives students practice finding and describing points in space. After learning about skyscrapers, tower design principles and how materials absorb different types of forces, students compete to build their own newspaper towers to meet specific design criteria. The unit concludes with student groups using balsa wood and glue to design and build tower structures to withstand vertical and lateral forces.
This engineering curriculum aligns to Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).

Engineering Connection

The ability to visualize in three dimensions is imperative to civil engineers. Engineers use a coordinate system whenever they create engineering drawings of structures, usually the Cartesian coordinate system. To build the tallest structures in the world, engineers must understand the importance of adequate foundations and redundancy in design to ensure safety and stability. To meet the challenge, engineers have devised and implemented many other creative designs and material uses so that their structures are able to withstand great forces. Students get a taste of these concepts and then apply what they have learned to create towers to meet specific objectives, as if they were civil engineers.

Unit Overview

Lesson 1, The Next Dimension: Students are introduced to the concept of 3-D coordinate systems and graphing, which are essential to civil engineering work. In an associated activity, A Place in Space, students practice finding points in space and describing the location of given points in space.

Lesson 2, Skyscrapers: Engineering Up!: Students are presented with a history of skyscrapers and their unnique structural engineering design principles. In an associated activity, Newspaper Towers, students compete to build newspaper towers of maximum height and ability to withstand wind forces. In a second associated activity, Balsa Towers, student groups use balsa wood and epoxy glue to build structurally sound towers with favorable strength-to-weight ratios.

Educational Standards

Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards.

All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standards Network (ASN), a project of D2L (

In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e.g., by state; within source by type; e.g., science or mathematics; within type by subtype, then by grade, etc.

NGSS Performance Expectation

MS-ETS1-1. Define the criteria and constraints of a design problem with sufficient precision to ensure a successful solution, taking into account relevant scientific principles and potential impacts on people and the natural environment that may limit possible solutions. (Grades 6 - 8)

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This unit focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:
Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts
Define a design problem that can be solved through the development of an object, tool, process or system and includes multiple criteria and constraints, including scientific knowledge that may limit possible solutions.

Alignment agreement:

The more precisely a design task's criteria and constraints can be defined, the more likely it is that the designed solution will be successful. Specification of constraints includes consideration of scientific principles and other relevant knowledge that is likely to limit possible solutions.

Alignment agreement:

All human activity draws on natural resources and has both short and long-term consequences, positive as well as negative, for the health of people and the natural environment.

Alignment agreement:

The uses of technologies and any limitations on their use are driven by individual or societal needs, desires, and values; by the findings of scientific research; and by differences in such factors as climate, natural resources, and economic conditions.

Alignment agreement:

  • Find and position integers and other rational numbers on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram; find and position pairs of integers and other rational numbers on a coordinate plane. (Grade 6) More Details

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More Curriculum Like This

Skyscrapers: Engineering Up!

Students learn about the history of the world's tallest free standing structures and the basic design principles behind their success. They build their own newspaper skyscrapers with limited materials and time, trying to achieve a maximum height and the ability to withstand a "hurricane wind" force...

preview of 'Skyscrapers: Engineering Up!' Lesson
Middle School Lesson
The Strongest Strongholds

Students work together in small groups, while competing with other teams, to explore the engineering design process through a tower building challenge. They are given a set of design constraints and then conduct online research to learn basic tower-building concepts. During a two-day process and usi...

preview of 'The Strongest Strongholds' Activity
Elementary Activity
Projections and Coordinates: Turning a 3D Earth into Flatlands

Students learn about projections and coordinates in the geographic sciences that help us to better understand the nature of the Earth and how to describe location.

Bridging the Gaps

Students are presented with a brief history of bridges as they learn about the three main bridge types: beam, arch and suspension. They are introduced to two natural forces — tension and compression — common to all bridges and structures.

preview of 'Bridging the Gaps' Lesson
Middle School Lesson

Unit Schedule


After this unit, students should be able to:

  • Locate a point in space, given its coordinates and an origin.
  • Use coordinates to describe the location of a given point in space relative to some origin.
  • Explain why they built their towers the way they did, using the concepts and terms they learned in the history of skyscraper presentation.
  • Explain how their towers resisted the wind load (for example, which tower parts supported the bulk of the load, or making the tower really slender so the wind has less area to act on, etc.).


© 2013 by Regents of the University of Colorado; original © 2004 Duke University


Kelly Devereaux; Ben Burnham

Supporting Program

Techtronics Program, Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University


This content was developed by the MUSIC (Math Understanding through Science Integrated with Curriculum) Program in the Pratt School of Engineering at Duke University under National Science Foundation GK-12 grant no. DGE 0338262. However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policies of the NSF, and you should not assume endorsement by the federal government.

Last modified: August 23, 2019


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