SummaryStudents use hot glue gun sticks to learn about the forces of tension, compression and torsion.
Engineers consider the impact of forces when designing and creating structures.
Students demonstrate their knowledge of compression, tension and torsion by conducting the experiment and successfully answering follow-up questions.
More Curriculum Like This
Students are introduced to the five fundamental loads: compression, tension, shear, bending and torsion. They learn about the different kinds of stress each force exerts on objects.
To introduce the two types of stress that materials undergo — compression and tension — students examine compressive and tensile forces and learn about bridges and skyscrapers. They construct their own building structure using marshmallows and spaghetti to see which structure can hold the most weigh...
Students learn about torsion as a force acting upon structures and have the opportunity to design something to withstand this force.
Through a series of three lessons, each with its own hands-on activity, students are introduced to 1) forces, loads and stress, 2) tensile loads and failure, and 3) torsion on structures—fundamental physics concepts that are critical to understanding the built world. The associated activities engage...
Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science,
technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards.
All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standards Network (ASN),
a project of D2L (www.achievementstandards.org).
In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e.g., by state; within source by type; e.g., science or mathematics;
within type by subtype, then by grade, etc.
Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards.
All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standards Network (ASN), a project of D2L (www.achievementstandards.org).
In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e.g., by state; within source by type; e.g., science or mathematics; within type by subtype, then by grade, etc.
- glue sticks (the kind used in heated glue guns)
- rulers (for measuring)
- thin permanent markers (for marking on the glue sticks)
When structures are being built, engineers must be aware of the forces that will be acting on the structure --- so they can make appropriate design and materials decisions. In today's activity, we will investigate those forces and how they might affect a structural member (a glue stick).
Have students follow the procedures below:
Glue stick experiment to show tension and compression created by bending.
- Use a ruler to mark four straight 4-inch lines that run the length of a glue stick. Space the lines 90-degrees apart: one on the top, one on the bottom, and one on each side of the glue stick.
- Holding a glue stick between a finger and thumb, apply a force to the middle and note how the lengths and shapes of the lines change.
Glue stick experiment to show torsion.
- Use a ruler to mark a series of straight lines along the length of a glue stick, as described in the previous experiment.
- Have pairs of students work together: Have one student hold one end of the glue stick, while his/her partner twists the other end as hard as possible.
- What happens to the line on the top of the glue stick (the side where your finger pushes)? What happens to the line on the bottom?
- What happens to the lines on the two sides of the glue stick?
- What is tension? Compression?
- What happens to the lines on the glue stick when it is twisted?
- Imagine that each vertical line represents a line of glue molecules. Notice how they have been slid sideways out of position by the twisting movement. This is the sign of shear forces acting inside the material.
- Can you explain shear force?
- What is torsion?
Assign the Investigating Questions as homework or a quiz. Or conduct a class discussion. (Refer to associated lesson for background information on forces.)
Forces Lab. Building Big. PBS. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/lab/forces.html
Copyright© 2013 by Regents of the University of Colorado; original © 2005 Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Supporting ProgramK-12 Outreach Office, Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Last modified: April 9, 2018