### Summary

This lesson culminates the unit with the Go Public phase of the legacy cycle. In the associated activity, students depict a tumor amidst healthy body tissue using a Microsoft Excel® graph. In addition, students design a brochure for both patients and doctors advertising a new form of painless yet reliable breast cancer detection. Together, the in-class activity and the take-home assignment function as an assessment of what students have learned throughout the unit.*This engineering curriculum meets Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS).*

### Engineering Connection

As part of the engineering design process, when a need in society is established as an engineering challenge, in order for the challenge to be solved, the solution must be well tested, found to be reliable and then presented to the demographic in need, through evidential explanations. For example, in the case of biomedical engineering, a need for painless, reliable breast cancer detection has been presented to researchers at the university level. Following the engineering design process, once a well-tested, consistent and accurate solution has been established in ultrasound technology, it must be presented to radiologists in hopes of implementation on a clinical level. Similarly, in the associated activity, students must demonstrate the accuracy of their solution; while in the lesson's assessment, students must present the solution to doctors and patients with an informative brochure.

### Pre-Req Knowledge

A complete understanding of Hooke's law and stress-strain relationships.

### Learning Objectives

After this lesson, students should be able to:

- Present a painless means of detecting breast cancer.
- Explain how knowing the different properties of a material can lead to a useful solution.
- Describe the role of tissue properties in detecting a tumor.
- Produce an image depicting the location of a tumor.

### More Curriculum Like This

**Using Stress and Strain to Detect Cancer!**

Students are presented with a biomedical engineering challenge: Breast cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer-related death among women and the American Cancer Society says mammography is the best early-detection tool available. This three lesson/three activity unit provides hands-on activitie...

**You Be the Radiologist!**

In addition to the associated lesson, this activity functions as a summative assessment for the Using Stress and Strain to Detect Cancer unit. In this activity, students create 1-D strain plots in Microsoft Excel® depicting the location of a breast tumor amidst healthy tissue.

**Detecting Breast Cancer**

Students are introduced to the unit challenge: To develop a painless means of identifying cancerous tumors. Solving the challenge depends on an understanding of the properties of stress and strain. After learning the challenge question, students generate ideas and consider the knowledge required to ...

**Tell Me the Odds (of Cancer)**

Through four lessons and three hands-on activities, students learn the concepts of refraction and interference in order to solve an engineering challenge. Students learn about some high-tech materials and delve into the properties of light, including the equations of refraction (index of refraction,...

###
Educational Standards
Each *TeachEngineering* lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science,
technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards.

All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in *TeachEngineering* are collected, maintained and packaged by the *Achievement Standards Network (ASN)*,
a project of *D2L* (www.achievementstandards.org).

In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; *e.g.*, by state; within source by type; *e.g.*, science or mathematics;
within type by subtype, then by grade, *etc*.

Each *TeachEngineering* lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K-12 science,
technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards.

All 100,000+ K-12 STEM standards covered in *TeachEngineering* are collected, maintained and packaged by the *Achievement Standards Network (ASN)*,
a project of *D2L* (www.achievementstandards.org).

In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; *e.g.*, by state; within source by type; *e.g.*, science or mathematics;
within type by subtype, then by grade, *etc*.

###### NGSS: Next Generation Science Standards - Science

- Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?
- Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?

###### Common Core State Standards - Math

- Prove that, given a system of two equations in two variables, replacing one equation by the sum of that equation and a multiple of the other produces a system with the same solutions. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?
- Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?
- Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?
- Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?
- Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?
- Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?

###### International Technology and Engineering Educators Association - Technology

- Telemedicine reflects the convergence of technological advances in a number of fields, including medicine, telecommunications, virtual presence, computer engineering, informatics, artificial intelligence, robotics, materials science, and perceptual psychology. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?
- Use computers and calculators to access, retrieve, organize, process, maintain, interpret, and evaluate data and information in order to communicate. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?
- Refine a design by using prototypes and modeling to ensure quality, efficiency, and productivity of the final product. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?
- Identify criteria and constraints and determine how these will affect the design process. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?

###### Maryland - Science

- Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?
- Design a solution to a complex real-world problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?

###### Tennessee - Math

- Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?
- Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?
- Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?
- Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?
- Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?
- Prove that, given a system of two equations in two variables, replacing one equation by the sum of that equation and a multiple of the other produces a system with the same solutions. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?

###### Tennessee - Science

- Solve problems related to velocity, acceleration, force, work, and power. (Grades 9 - 12) Details... View more aligned curriculum... Do you agree with this alignment?

### Introduction/Motivation

Today is the big day! Today we will design a painless yet reliable method for detecting breast cancer. This is the time to *Go Public *with what you've learned! First you will complete the in-class portion in which you create a graph depicting the location of a tumor given certain conditions. Then you have three nights to complete the take-home portion in which you create a brochure advertising the new form of breast cancer detection to patients and doctors. Your brochure should explain how it works and the advantages and disadvantages of your design. It should also explain how you disseminated the problem and found a manageable solution to a complex issue. Please use the grading rubric to guide your brochure design.

### Lesson Background and Concepts for Teachers

Legacy Cycle Information

This lesson includes the final step of the legacy cycle, the Go Public step. In the associated activity (You be the Radiologist!), students create a graph depicting the location of a tumor amidst fatty tissue, given certain conditions. In the take-home portion of the Go Public phase, students are given three to design a brochure advertising the new form of breast cancer detection to patients and doctors. The brochure should explain how the detection works, its advantages and its disadvantages.

Informative Brochure

Distribute the attached grading rubric to the class. Have each student prepare his/her own brochure and use the grading rubric as a guide in assessing student designs.

### Vocabulary/Definitions

cancer: A malignant and invasive growth or tumor tending to recur after removal and to metastasize to other sites.

force: An influence on a body or system, producing a change in movement or in shape or other effects.

spring: An elastic body such as a wire of steel coiled spirally that recovers its shape after being compressed, bent or stretched.

strain: Deformation of a body or structure as a result of an applied force beyond limit.

stress: The physical pressure, pull or other force exerted on a system by another, producing a strain. Measured by the ratio of force to area.

### Associated Activities

- You Be the Radiologist! - Students create a 1-D strain plot in Microsoft Excel® depicting the location of a breast tumor amidst healthy tissue. They also create a descriptive brochure. The results of this activity function as proof of the accuracy and reliability of students' breast cancer detection design.

### Attachments

### Assessment

Embedded Assessment:

Give each student a composite grade based on the graph generated in the associated activity as well as the informative brochure.

### References

Dictionary.com. Lexico Publishing Group,LLC. Accessed December 28, 2008. (Source of vocabulary definitions, with some adaptation) http://www.dictionary.com

### Contributors

Luke Diamond; Meghan Murphy### Copyright

© 2013 by Regents of the University of Colorado; original © 2007 Vanderbilt University### Supporting Program

VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering, Vanderbilt University### Acknowledgements

The contents of this digital library curriculum were developed under National Science Foundation RET grant nos. 0338092 and 0742871. However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policies of the NSF, and you should not assume endorsement by the federal government.

Last modified: September 5, 2017

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