Summary
In addition to the associated lesson, this activity functions as a summative assessment for the Using Stress and Strain to Detect Cancer unit. In this activity, students create 1D strain plots in Microsoft Excel® depicting the location of a breast tumor amidst healthy tissue. The results of this activity function as proof of the accuracy and reliability of students' breast cancer detection designs.Engineering Connection
Biomedical engineers conducting cancer research have shifted their attention toward tumor classification since finding characteristics common to all types of malignant breast cancer increases the validity in cancer diagnosis. One characteristic that distinguishes breast cysts from cancerous tumors is a dense fibrous area surrounding the lesion. This occurs as the body attempts to ward off the malignant tumor. Benign tumors are found to be much softer. On a very basic level, in this activity, students apply this concept to Young's modulus of elasticity. In generating the strain graph, the malignant region is depicted with a much higher modulus of elasticity indicting a stiffer region with less deformation. This understanding is applied in the generation of the strain graph as well as the brochures generated as part of the associated lesson's assessment.
Learning Objectives
After this activity, students should be able to:
 Model a tumor in normal tissue using a stress strain relationship.
 Depict a tumor using a graph in excel.
 Describe the advantages and disadvantages of this imaging technique.
 Explain how breaking down the problem can lead to an achievable solution.
Educational Standards
Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K12 science,
technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards.
All 100,000+ K12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standards Network (ASN),
a project of D2L (www.achievementstandards.org).
In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e.g., by state; within source by type; e.g., science or mathematics;
within type by subtype, then by grade, etc.
Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is correlated to one or more K12 science, technology, engineering or math (STEM) educational standards.
All 100,000+ K12 STEM standards covered in TeachEngineering are collected, maintained and packaged by the Achievement Standards Network (ASN), a project of D2L (www.achievementstandards.org).
In the ASN, standards are hierarchically structured: first by source; e.g., by state; within source by type; e.g., science or mathematics; within type by subtype, then by grade, etc.
NGSS: Next Generation Science Standards  Science

Design a solution to a complex realworld problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering.
(Grades 9  12 )
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This Performance Expectation focuses on the following Three Dimensional Learning aspects of NGSS:Science & Engineering Practices Disciplinary Core Ideas Crosscutting Concepts Design a solution to a complex realworld problem, based on scientific knowledge, studentgenerated sources of evidence, prioritized criteria, and tradeoff considerations. Alignment agreement:
Criteria may need to be broken down into simpler ones that can be approached systematically, and decisions about the priority of certain criteria over others (tradeoffs) may be needed. Alignment agreement:

Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
(Grades 9  12 )
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Common Core State Standards  Math

Solve simple rational and radical equations in one variable, and give examples showing how extraneous solutions may arise.
(Grades 9  12 )
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Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related.
(Grades 9  12 )
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Prove that, given a system of two equations in two variables, replacing one equation by the sum of that equation and a multiple of the other produces a system with the same solutions.
(Grades 9  12 )
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Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.
(Grades 9  12 )
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Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multistep problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays.
(Grades 9  12 )
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Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials.
(Grades 9  12 )
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Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable
(Grades 9  12 )
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Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables
(Grades 9  12 )
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International Technology and Engineering Educators Association  Technology

Telemedicine reflects the convergence of technological advances in a number of fields, including medicine, telecommunications, virtual presence, computer engineering, informatics, artificial intelligence, robotics, materials science, and perceptual psychology.
(Grades 9  12 )
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Use computers and calculators to access, retrieve, organize, process, maintain, interpret, and evaluate data and information in order to communicate.
(Grades 9  12 )
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Document processes and procedures and communicate them to different audiences using appropriate oral and written techniques.
(Grades 9  12 )
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State Standards
Maryland  Science

Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions
(Grades
9 
12 )
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

Design a solution to a complex realworld problem by breaking it down into smaller, more manageable problems that can be solved through engineering.
(Grades
9 
12 )
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?
Tennessee  Math

Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multistep problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose and interpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays.
(Grades
9 
12 )
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

Summarize, represent, and interpret data on a single count or measurement variable
(Grades
9 
12 )
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

Summarize, represent, and interpret data on two categorical and quantitative variables
(Grades
9 
12 )
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication; add, subtract, and multiply polynomials.
(Grades
9 
12 )
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

Represent data on two quantitative variables on a scatter plot, and describe how the variables are related.
(Grades
9 
12 )
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph.
(Grades
9 
12 )
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

Solve simple rational and radical equations in one variable, and give examples showing how extraneous solutions may arise.
(Grades
9 
12 )
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?

Prove that, given a system of two equations in two variables, replacing one equation by the sum of that equation and a multiple of the other produces a system with the same solutions.
(Grades
9 
12 )
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?
Tennessee  Science

Solve problems related to velocity, acceleration, force, work, and power.
(Grades
9 
12 )
More Details
Do you agree with this alignment?
Materials List
Each student needs a copy of the attached handout (doc).
Worksheets and Attachments
More Curriculum Like This
Students are introduced to Hooke's law as well as stressstrain relationships. Through the lesson's twopart associated activity, students 1) explore Hooke's law by experimentally determining an unknown spring constant, and then 2) apply what they've learned to create a strain graph depicting a tumo...
This lesson culminates the unit with the Go Public phase of the legacy cycle. In the associated activity, students depict a tumor amidst healthy body tissue using a Microsoft Excel® graph.
Students are presented with a biomedical engineering challenge: Breast cancer is the secondleading cause of cancerrelated death among women and the American Cancer Society says mammography is the best earlydetection tool available. This three lesson/three activity unit provides handson activitie...
PreReq Knowledge
A complete understanding of Hooke's law, stress, strain and the associated relationships.
Introduction/Motivation
Today we will finally complete our unit and it will be your task to create an image depicting a tumor amidst healthy breast tissue. You will each receive a handout with an image which, after making the appropriate calculations, should be depicted in a graph generated in Microsoft Excel®. Please read the instructions on your assignment and ask any me any questions you may have. Today's assignment is worth 50 points, like your brochure. Together the two assignments are worth 100 points, equal to a test grade. Not to worry though! You all are more than prepared to create your challenge solution. Please clear everything from your desks and remember this is an individual assessment so please only look at your computer screen.
Procedure
Background
This activity provides students with the first portion of the Go Public phase of the legacy cycle. Students create strain plots without any aids. They are graded on their solutions. This activity tests students on their comprehension of the material presented thus far, which includes the concepts of Hooke's law, stress, strain and biomedical imaging techniques.
With the Students
Hand out tp students the Show Me the Tumor! Handout. Explain that they may not use their notes or any other aids. This is an individual assessment, which along with the takehome portion, will count as a test grade.
Vocabulary/Definitions
cancer: A malignant and invasive growth or tumor tending to recur after removal and to metastasize to other sites.
force: An influence on a body or system, producing a change in movement or in shape or other effects.
spring: An elastic body such as a wire of steel coiled spirally that recovers its shape after being compressed, bent, or stretched.
strain: Deformation of a body or structure as a result of an applied force beyond limit.
stress: The physical pressure, pull, or other force exerted on a system by another, producing a strain. Measured by the ratio of force to area.
Assessment
Activity Embedded Assessment: Grade on the accuracy of their graphs as well as their supporting calculations.
Investigating Questions
 What fundamental concepts does this method of cancer detection rely upon?
 Is this method reliable?
 Is this method of tumor detection cost effective?
 Is this method reasonable for clinical use?
 Are there any other methods to detect tumors in tissue? If so compare to the method used in this activity.
References
Dictionary.com. Lexico Publishing Group,LLC. Accessed December 28, 2008. (Source of vocabulary definitions, with some adaptation)
Contributors
Luke Diamond ; Meghan MurphyCopyright
© 2013 by Regents of the University of Colorado; original © 2007 Vanderbilt UniversitySupporting Program
VU Bioengineering RET Program, School of Engineering, Vanderbilt UniversityAcknowledgements
The contents of this digital library curriculum were developed under National Science Foundation RET grant nos. 0338092 and 0742871. However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policies of the NSF, and you should not assume endorsement by the federal government.
Last modified: March 17, 2018
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